THE PUBLIC-DOMAIN SHAKESPEARE

A paper delivered at the Modern Language Association, New York, 29 December 1992, 10:15-11:30 a.m., at the Riverside Suite, Sheraton New York.

Ian Lancashire
Department of English
University of Toronto

Renaissance Electronic Texts Supplementary Studies 2

UTEL Home Page

1. What should a Public-Domain Shakespeare be?

In his dedicatory poem to Shakespeare in the First Folio, Ben Jonson said, `He was not of an age, but for all time!' Despite this -- and after more than thirty years of electronic scholarship -- the 1623 and three later folio editions, and all the quarto versions, of Shakespeare's plays and poems are still not available in un-copy-protected electronic texts on the network. Instead, we have texts that either vary (without warning) from these early texts or that, although old-spelling copies, do not faithfully capture the bibliographical details of the originals. Shakespeare's works, altered silently or emended on explicit grounds, may be obtained commercially or freely in electronic form, but not the originals from which every one of these editions must flow. Trevor Howard-Hill's old-spelling versions in the Oxford Text Archive come closest to these originals, but a charge is still made for them, their copyright status is unclear, and they do not render the typography of the originals. See Appendix A for a list of these editions.

For this reason, the editor of the SHAKSPER file-server, Hardy Cook, assisted by myself with encoding and proofing, is producing a prototype `public-domain' edition of Shakespeare's sonnets and `A Lover's Complaint' (1609). This edition records the fonts, including ligatures, of the original quarto and declines to introduce emendations, even of probable typos. We have encoded only non-interpretive features of the text such as signature, catchword, running-title, indentation, forme, sonnet number, rhyming scheme, etc. in both COCOA and SGML tagging syntax. We have not collated a variety of copies of the 1609 edition but rather just two quartos at the Folger Shakespeare Library, one as sold by Aspley and the other by Wright. Version 1.0 of `Shake- speares Sonnets' (1609) will be distributed from SHAKSPER and the Centre for Computing in the Humanities at the University of Toronto. Anyone may copy, use, alter or store this public-domain edition anywhere in the world. The only restriction is that it be not sold commercially.

The COCOA- and SGML-encoded files are being made available with some ancillary files: word-frequency lists (alphabetical, reverse alphabetical and descending frequency), tables of repeated phrases and of node-collocate pairs (with associational z-score), type-token statistics for word-and-letter frequency and length, and finally an interpretive dictionary of all word-forms that includes part-of-speech, lemmatized form, and normalized form. These ancillary files have been generated by the TACT system. With TACT, it is possible to obtain other displays with the COCOA-tagged version, as well as to tag words in the text by part-of-speech indicator, lemma and normalized form so as to produce other versions of the text for text analysis, for student editions, etc.

2. What Electronic Shakespeares are there?

There are two well-known scholarly editions of Shakespeare, the Riverside and the New Oxford, both commercially released in the summer of 1988 at a reasonable cost for text-retrieval purposes. The Oxford texts come in ASCII form, but not the Riverside, which is partially encrypted and only usable with WordCruncher. In addition, there are at least two CD-ROM editions. One, stated as from the out-of-copyright Stratford Town edition edited by Arthur Bullen, has been produced, with tagging that is copyrighted to the publisher. The electronic text of this edition has been extracted by Grady Ward from this CD-ROM, minus the copyrighted tags, and made available widely on the Internet. Its text, however, differs markedly from 1904-7 `STRATFORD TOWN EDITION ... IN TEN VOLUMES PRINTED FOR A. H. BULLEN & F. SIDGWICK AT THE SHAKESPEARE HEAD PRESS' (Vol. X, 1907); and the standard Shakespeare bibliographies do not list a 1911 edition. I have not had an opportunity to look at the Shakespeare CD-ROM from CMC ReSearch, Inc., 7150 Southwest Hampton, Suite 120, Portland, OR 97223 (see Humanities Computing Yearbook 1991: 245), or at a number of Macintosh hypertext versions of some of the texts. (A search of one of the Archie databases on Internet will readily locate these.)

Finally, Lou Burnard of the Oxford Text Archive has obtained the old-spelling quarto and First Folio texts made by Oxford University Press and the editor of the individual-text concordances, Trevor Howard-Hill, in the sixties and is releasing them for a small fee (US $90) to researchers who agree not to use reproduce or distribute those texts further.

The Short-title Catalog shows that there are 197 editions of Shakespeare's individual plays, and of his poems, up to 1640. Only 64 of these exist in old-spelling electronic editions, most of which are available from the Oxford Text Archive. There appear to be no old-spelling electronic editions for a surprising number of crucial texts, including early `good' quartos such as

as well as many reprints, such as the second folio (1632), and several texts attributed to Shakespeare, such as A Yorkshire Tragedy. See Appendix A.

Editors of Shakespeare tend to reject the reprints and later editions of his plays and poems that comprise most of the 133 works not available in electronic form as of no significance in restoring Shakespeare's text. This may well prove to be so, but without collations that can best be done by an automatic comparison of electronic copies of those texts, how can one be sure?

3. Why not to Trust Electronic Shakespeares

Appendix B presents the text of two sonnets from seven electronic editions available to me:

  1. The Stratford Town modern-spelling edition of 1911, edited by Arthur Bullen, and as released on the Internet by Grady Ward

  2. The New Oxford Shakespeare modern-spelling edition by Stanley Wells and Gary Taylor

  3. The Riverside Shakespeare modern-spelling edition by G. Evans

  4. The Walnut Creek CD-ROM version.

  5. Kenneth Steele's and Hardy Cook's old-spelling transcription, untagged, as available on the SHAKSPER file-server

  6. The tagged version of 4.

  7. Hardy Cook's old-spelling transcription, managed with my help.
The `Stratford Town edition of 1911', Riverside, and New Oxford editions were issued with textual collations that list textual emendations, variants, and doubtful readings. Their electronic editions, however, do not flag such emendations and variants, in particular "lights" to "light'st" (Bullen 1.6), and "totter'd" to "tatter'd" or "tattered" (Bullen 2.4, Wells and Taylor 2.4, Walnut Creek 2.4). Normalization to modern word-form in these texts also silently alters spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and diacritics such as the apostrophe and the hyphen.

These changes are sometimes important. For instance, `beauties' (1.2, 2.2) could be singular or plural genitive but is rendered singular by Bullen, Wells and Taylor, and Evans; and they add a hyphen to `selfe substantiall' (1.6), although it is possible both are adjectives. The word `Rose' (1.2), rendered with both a capital and italics in the original, loses them in normalized versions. The elimination of what scholars have called `accidentals' and `rendering' occasionally affects text retrieval, but it often impacts text analysis. Italics indicate emphasis, and capitalization can designate a personification. Old-spelling texts such as the OUP-Howard-Hill collection do not introduce such quasi- semantic changes into Shakespeare's texts.

Yet even the Howard-Hill editions, rigorous though they be, can be misleading to someone trying to arrive at the correct text by analysis, because by translating the compositor's types, ligatures and contractions into a modern English alphabet they deprive us of the evidence we need to decide whether or not an apparently erroneous reading arises by `foul case.' Shakespeare's `alphabet' included two forms of s, the familiar sigma form and a long form (noted here by |s), shaped like an f without the crossbar. This means that s then, unlike s today, can be confused with f. Compositors in the Renaissance also regularly used ligatures (joined letters), instead of their equivalent separate letters: ct, ff, ffi, ffl, fi, fl, |si, |sl, |s|s, |s|si, |st, etc. These function as single typographical units. Consequently, we can be fairly certain that a compositor who is setting st in the word "light'|st" on a manuscript page is not going to pick s by mistake; he will select another ligature, such as |sl. (See Moxon 32 for an early illustration of a printer's cases with slots for ligatures.) Randall McLeod (Clod 1991, 253-4) identifies another such unlikely, but common emendation of a supposed typo in sonnet 106: of `{|st}ill' (long-s/t ligature) to `skill' (normal-s/k non- ligature).

For this reason, a prototype `public domain' Shakespeare must be a very `conservative' text. It is a trivial matter to derive from such a prototype a normalized or modernized version of the text (TACT, for example, gives us the means to do so with the word- form dictionary), but it is impossible to reverse the process. We cannot recover the original text from the normalized text. Even something as apparently simple as |s -- which occurs in initial and medial positions but not in terminal ones, at which sigma s is found -- is complicated. For example, |s never occurs initially before k in the 1609 edition; and because there are no capital forms of |s, any text in which capitalization has been modernized will change instances of sigma s into |s that (being capitalized in the original) were never |s.

Once we have such a prototype, we should be better able to identify the different `type streams,' representing the work of different compositors, or the type found in several different cases, that combine to produce most quartos and folios. Printed texts vary from the copy from which they have been set according to the habits of their compositors, the house-style of the printing house, or the typeface available at that house. Without electronic texts reflecting the choices that compositors actually made during composition, we lack the basis for understanding what Shakespeare's underlying text might have been.

This prototype is of course not the final text we hope to have. That would identify damaged types and other peculiarities of the printing house, such as the mixture of the two dominant forms of Renaissance pica, S-face and Y-face. These can be identified, not from the ink blots that we read as letters or ligatures, but from the physical impression that each metal type has made on the paper, something that might be discovered by either magnifying the paper surface or by a new application of laser scanning.

4. Why Tag? and How?

Printed editions have kinds of apparatus that we accept without a second thought: table of contents, introduction, textual collation, line numbers, commentary, an index, and perhaps an appendix on source material. Traditional editions are intended for human readers turning pages. Computerized texts, however well they may imitate a paper book, are `read' in quite different ways, and consequently their apparatus should be expected to be different.

For example, inexpensive text-retrieval and analysis software exists now that can automatically `invert' machine-readable texts into frequency lists, distribution graphs, concordances, collocate tables, etc. Any two files may be automatically compared, and a list of differences output without editorial `interference' or judgment. These displays are `virtual' (potential, `implicit') kinds of apparatus. The better tagged a text is, the more different displays it may potentially have. The status of electronic texts thus determines the kinds of apparatus they have.

I call such displays `transforms' of the work, but the concept is old, even if the name is not; and no display ever permanently alters or `transforms' the original text. A transform occurs when a group of words or passages is related to one or more `tags' in the text. For example, a table of contents is a transform in which passages, normally tagged as chapter headings, are listed by the page numbers (also tagged) they occupy: the more tags a text has, the more varied the transforms that may be applied to the text.

In particular, with some information not commonly found in traditional paper editions, software can transform texts automatically into normalized or lemmatized forms. One such kind of apparatus suitable for an electronic edition is an alphabetical table of word-forms in a text, listed with possible parts-of-speech and inflectional or morphological information, normalized forms, and dictionary lemmas. With such an additional file, software might then `tag' the text with these features and then transform it automatically into a normalized text or a text where grammatical roles replace the words they describe. Such transformations have useful roles to play in authorship studies and stylistic analysis.

Normally a text will only have one lineation, but a computerized text may have multiple lineations without making the `text' unreadable. (All tags may be `hidden' in displays.) It would be possible, then, to number, not just lines in a play-text or poem-text from start to finish, but lines in the entire book (including blank lines and lines for running titles or signatures), or lines in stage directions, or lines in inner or outer formes, or lines in a potential but non-existent `master edition' where every line in every version of a text was mapped to one lineation. Words can be numbered in sequence too. The `virtual' apparatus of an electronic transcription might offer numbered word-sets for every speaker, or every forme, or every speech.

It is useful to adopt widely-accepted encoding conventions. Doing so asks one to select (a) a `syntax' for tags, (b) features that ought always to be tagged (and others that might well be tagged), and (c) a set of tag-words that are clear, accurate and widely acceptable.

The only rational interchange format (or `syntax') for text tagging may well prove the Text Encoding Initiative's SGML-based guidelines, a final version of which will be released later this year. The current draft version of TEI recommendations appears in the ACH-ACL-ALLC Guidelines (1991). SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) has been approved by the International Standards Organization for some time. Charles F. Goldfarb, the inventor of SGML, describes the standard in his SGML Handbook.

Because most software has been designed for COCOA-style tags, however, texts ought also be encoded with COCOA markup. COCOA encoding originated in the early 1970s for use with the software that became the Oxford Concordance Program (Oxford University Press). TACT (Centre for Computing in the Humanities, University of Toronto) also uses the COCOA encoding method. WordCruncher (formerly Electronic Text Corporation, now Brigham Young University) employs a simple three-tag syntax that TACT recognizes.

The general rule-of-thumb about features to be tagged is that distinguishable things ought to be represented -- or tagged -- so as to be distinguished.

Tags meet several needs. Sometimes they identify uniquely certain types that cannot be found on modern keyboards. The SGML `entity' permits us to make tags for any kind of thing encountered in an early edition (it permits us, for instance, to identify each ligature and contracted form). Normally tags surround text and so `label' it with a name, such as speech prefix or stage direction. Sometimes they act as counters, giving the current number of a line or a page. Occasionally labeling and counting tags may be given internal `attributes'. For example, the `font' tag could have attributes such as face (italic, roman, black letter), size and `boundary' (most letters are `unbounded' because they follow one another, but so-called `lapidary' or `letter-spaced' letters are separated by spaces so as to give them a `monumental' character), and the `speech prefix' tag could have an attribute giving a standard form of the name of the person speaking.

Tags, then, are devices by which we characterize elements of a text for a computer. We recognize immediately most speech prefixes, but a computer `must be told.' Almost anything may be tagged, including images, modes of narrative, types of speech, etc., but the tags used in the prototype 1609 quarto will indicate unambiguous features of books and language, not matters of interpretation. All part-of-speech and lemma tags in the dictionary file are of course interpretive, but they are provided for a user's convenience and do not appear in the text.

The 1609 quarto will tag the following things:

5. Conclusion

A series of Shakespeare editions conceived along these lines should assist in the study of the language of Early Modern English by recording accurately the orthography, vocabulary and syntax of Shakespeare's works from the 1590s to the mid-17th century. This lexical database would contribute to the history of the language, specifically in light of the plans of Oxford University Press to issue a third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary within the next two decades.

Each generation will make its own contribution to the study of Shakespeare. A carefully-prepared, conservative electronic series of texts, which is by no means an undoable task -- consider the work of Ted Brunner in his Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, or the astonishing Full-Text English Poetry Database from Chadwyck-Healey -- will provide a uniform foundation for new research, some of it hard to imagine at this time.

I hope that the prototype electronic edition of the Shakespeare's sonnets and `Lover's Complaint' will be rigorously assessed by textual scholars of Shakespeare, because, like any electronic text, it will be `alive,' capable of being revised with relative ease, as long as the Internet or its successor networks are in place. Because corrections and additional encoding information may be added to an electronic text incrementally, and everyone contributing an improvement to the text is recorded in the TEI `history' of the file, these editions would increase in authority over the years.

Hardy Cook will be undertaking further editions of Shakespeare's poems. We hope that other scholars will join us in this enjoyable, useful project.

WORKS CITED



Clod, Random [pseud. of Randall McLeod]. `Information Upon Information.' Text 5 (1991): 241-81.

Goldfarb, Charles F. The SGML Handbook. Ed. Yuri Rubinsky. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

Guidelines For the Encoding and Interchange of Machine- Readable Texts. Ed. C. M. Sperberg-McQueen and Lou Burnard. (TEI P1), Draft Version 1.1. Chicago and Oxford, October 1990; 2nd printing, June 1991.

The Humanities Computing Yearbook 1989-90: A Comprehensive Guide to Software and other Resources. Ed. Ian Lancashire. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.

McLeod, Randall. `Unemending Shakespeare's Sonnet 111.' Studies in English Literature 21 (1981): 75-96.

Moxon, Joseph. Mechanick Exercises on the Whole Art of Printing (1683-4). Ed. Herbert Davis and Harry Carter. 2nd edn. London: Oxford University Press, 1962.

Appendix A. Draft List of Shakespeare Electronic Editions

This list covers commercial and research e-texts and covers the STC period to 1640, with additional plays included in the Third Folio.
I. Electronic Text Archives

     CCH= Centre for Computing in the Humanities 
     OTA= Oxford Text Archive
     SHA= SHAKSPER fileserver


II. Contributors of Electronic Texts

     BM = William Montgomery, Oxford University Press

     CO = Hardy Cook, Department of English, Bowie State College

     CR = Hugh Craig, Department of English, University of
          Newcastle

     HH = T. H. Howard-Hill, Department of English, University of
          North Carolina, Chapel Hill

     HO = Thomas B. Horton, Department of Computer Science,
          University of Florida 

     LA = Ian Lancashire, Department of English, University of
          Toronto

     LB = Lou Burnard, Oxford Text Archive, Oxford University 
          Computing Services, Oxford University (old-spelling
          Shakespeare available through SHAKSPER listserv
          for US $90)

     MH = Michael S. Hart, Project Gutenburg.

     PW = Jon Price-Wilkin, formerly University of Michigan
          Library.

     WL = Willy Lutkemeyer, Department of English, gymn. am 
          Markt.


III. Commercial Versions

     RIV =     Riverside Shakespeare (Ed. G. Blakemore Evans;
               Electronic Text Corporation; see RIVERSID ERRORS
               (SHAKSPER file server) for 70 typographical errors
               discovered by Kenneth Steele 29/11/90). The text 
               can be obtained from:

                    Johnston and Co., PO Box 446, American Fork,
                    Utah 84003.
                    Voice: (801) 756-1111
                    FAX: (801) 756-0242

          SHAKCOM.BYB (1,492,391 bytes) 06-27-88
          SHAKCOM.BYX (1,150,267 bytes) 06-27-88
          SHAKCOM.BYC (2,314 bytes) 06-27-88
          SHAKCOM.BYU (2,354 bytes) 06-29-88
          SHAKCOM.BYA (292 bytes) 06-27-88
          SHAKHIST.BYX (1,046,243 bytes) 06-29-88
          SHAKHIST.BYB (1,368,058 bytes) 06-29-88
          SHAKHIST.BYA (268 bytes) 06-29-88
          SHAKHIST.BYC (2,314 bytes) 06-29-88
          SHAKHIST.BYU (2,354 bytes) 06-29-88
          SHAKR&P.BYC (2,314 bytes) 06-29-88
          SHAKR&P.BYX (718,878 bytes) 06-29-88
          SHAKR&P.BYA (284 bytes) 06-29-88
          SHAKR&P.BYB (885,887 bytes) 06-29-88
          SHAKR&P.BYU (2,354 bytes) 06-29-88
          SHAKTRAG.BYB (130,726 bytes) 06-27-88
          SHAKTRAG.BYX (1,017,379 bytes) 06-27-88
          SHAKTRAG.BYA (268 bytes) 08-11-88
          SHAKTRAG.BYC (2,314 bytes) 06-27-88
          SHAKTRAG.BYU (2,354 bytes) 06-29-88

     OUP =     Oxford University Press (New Oxford Shakespeare).
          This may be obtained from Electronic Publishing, OUP.

     Disk 1:
          HAM.TXT (220,584) 05-16-88
          TN.TXT (140,767) 05-16-88
          R3.TXT (218,774) 05-16-88
          JC.TXT (142,946) 05-16-88
     Disk 2:
          COR.TXT (202,606) 05-16-88
          LLL.TXT (156,738) 05-16-88
          CYL.TXT (200,701) 05-16-88
          R2.TXT (159,270) 05-16-88
     Disk 3:
          TRO.TXT (194,490) 05-16-88
          AWW.TXT (163,603) 05-16-88
          CYM.TXT (193,977) 05-16-88
          1H6.TXT (162,078) 05-16-88
     Disk 4:
          2H4.TXT (190,803) 05-16-88
          WIV.TXT (162,053) 05-16-88
          OTH.TXT (187,930) 05-16-88
          TNK.TXT (173,503) 05-16-88
     Disk 5:
          RDY.TXT (185,171) 05-16-88
          LRF.TXT (175,745) 05-16-88
          H5.TXT (185,241) 05-16-88
          ROM.TXT (174,678) 05-16-88
     Disk 6:
          LRQ.TXT (184,517) 05-16-88
          1H4.TXT (172,650) 05-16-88
          ANT.TXT (183,857) 05-16-88
          WT.TXT (171,070) 05-16-88
     Disk 7:
          AIT.TXT (179,697) 05-16-88
          MM.TXT (162,461) 05-16-88
          LC.TXT (16,745) 05-16-88
          SHR.TXT (154,364) 05-16-88
          AYL.TXT (149,954) 05-16-88
          PRE.TXT (38,621) 08-15-88
          STM.TXT (10,961) 05-16-88
     Disk 8:
          TIT.TXT (146,864) 05-17-88
          JN.TXT (146,092) 05-16-88
          VEN.TXT (63,083) 05-16-88
          ADO.TXT (146,606) 05-16-88
          MV.TXT (146,161) 05-16-88
          VAR.TXT (25,779) 05-17-88
     Disk 9:
          PER.TXT (144,296) 05-16-88
          TIM.TXT (138,075) 05-16-88
          SON.TXT (135,737) 05-16-88
          MAC.TXT (128,670) 05-16-88
     Disk 10:
          TMP.TXT (124,493) 05-16-88
          TGV.TXT (121,652) 05-16-88
          ERR.TXT (109,652) 05-16-88
          MND.TXT (121,076) 08-15-88
          LUC.TXT (98,512) 05-16-88

     SOD =     Shakespeare-on-Disk: the text of 20 plays 
               that is alleged to be `taken [but I have not
               been able to verify this source atttribution]
               from Arthur Bullen's Stratford Town Edition'
               (1904-7?), as obtained from Shakespeare on Disk,
               Hollow Road, P.O. Box 299B, Clinton Corners, NY
               12514, USA. (914) 266-5705 (37 works are also
               available from this firm). The 20-play textbase
               is available online by connecting with
               TELNET to lib.dartmouth.edu (the Dartmouth College
               Library Online Catalog).  After the catalog is
               running, type `SELECT FILE SHAKESPEARE PLAYS'.  
               See file INTERNET TEXTBASE on SHAKSPER file server.

          Antony and Cleopatra
          Hamlet
          Julius Caesar
          King Lear
          Macbeth
          Othello
          Romeo and Juliet
          As You Like It
          A Comedy of Errors
          The Merchant of Venice
          A Midsummer Night's Dream
          Much Ado About Nothing
          The Taming of the Shrew
          The Tempest
          Twelfth Night
          King Richard II
          King Henry IV (Part I)
          King Henry IV (Part II)
          King Henry V
          King Richard III

     WardSOD = Shakespeare-on-Disk (same edn.?): available by FTP
               from /pub/misc/shakespeare.tar.Z (2,297,961 bytes)
               at isy.liu.se (ASCII) or for US$10 from 

               Grady Ward,
               571 Belden St., Ste. A, 
               Monterey, CA 93940, USA.
               Voice: (408) 373-1491. 
               E-mail: grady@ btr.com.  

               This text has been checked against Arthur H.
               Bullen's edition of Shakespeare's Works, Stratford
               Town Edition, 10 vols. (Stratford-on-Avon, 
               [1904-07]), and the two are not the same
               (though I have relied on the sonnet excerpts).  
               The source of the electronic text is not clear.

          Announcement (2,966 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          Glossary (58,967 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          README (1,955 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          Table-of-contents (1,072 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          c01.the-two-gentlemen-of-verona (102,085 bytes) 11/5/92 
          c02.the-taming-of-the-shrew (124,241 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          c03.the-comedy-of-errors (89,529 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          c04.loves-labours-lost (129,993 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          c05.a-midsummer-nights-dream (96,512 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          c06.the-merchant-of-venice (122,666 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          c07.the-merry-wives-of-windsor (131,580  bytes) 11/5/92
          c08.much-ado-about-nothing (123,417 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          c09.as-you-like-it (125,183 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          c10.twelfth-night (116,765 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          c11.troilus-and-cressida (158,950 bytes) 11 May 1992
          c12.measure-for-measure (130,477 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          c13.alls-well-that-ends-well (135,373 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          c14.pericles-prince-of-tyre (111,608 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          c15.the-winters-tale (145,799 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          c16.cymbeline (165,213 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          c17.the-tempest (99,383 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          h01.2-henry-VI (9,441 bytes) Nov 22 23:44 
          gaunt1 (152,841 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          h02.3-henry-VI (148,210 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          h03.1-henry-VI (134,038 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          h04.richard-III (180,485 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          h05.venus-and-adonis (54,394 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          h06.the-rape-of-lucrece (84,700 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          h07.richard-II (134,887 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          h08.king-john (122,566 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          h09.1-henry-IV (145,006 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          h10.2-henry-IV (157,307 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          h11.henry-V (155,140 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          h12.sonnets-and-a-lovers-complaint (110,038bytes) 11/5/92
          h13.various-poems (18,958 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          h14.henry-VIII (148,487 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          t01.titus-andronics (124,099 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          t02.romeo-and-juliet (144,343 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          t03.julius-caesar (118,052 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          t04.hamlet (182,571 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          t05.othello (156,453 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          t06.timon-of-athens (113,179 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          t07.king-lear (157,287 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          t08.macbeth (105,408 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          t09.antony-and-cleopatra (158,561 bytes) 11 May 1992 
          t10.coriolanus (168,353 bytes) 11 May 1992 

     DkLib =   Desktop Library CDROM: available for US $39.95
               from

               Walnut Creek CDROM              
               1547 Palos Verdes, Ste. 260,             
               Walnut Creek, CA 94596,
               USA     
               Voice:    (510) 947-5996
                    (800) 786-9907
               FAX:      (510) 947-1644
               Internet: velte@cdrom.com
               CompuServe: 72147,3425 

               00_INDEX TXT      7824 08-01-92  
               ALLS_WEL        149195 08-01-92   
               ANTONY          171575 08-01-92   
               C_ERRORS         98428 08-01-92   
               COMPLAIN         15541 08-01-92   
               CORIOLAN        185405 08-01-92   
               CYMBELIN        180409 08-01-92   
               HAMLET          197289 08-01-92   
               HENRY_IV        155714 08-01-92   
               HENRY_V         170438 08-01-92   
               HENRY_VI        148491 08-01-92   
               HENRY42         170494 08-01-92   
               HENRY62         167694 08-01-92   
               HENRY63         163166 08-01-92   
               HNRYVIII        161163 08-01-92   
               J_CAESAR        130227 08-01-92   
               KINGJOHN        134138 08-01-92   
               KINGLEAR        173954 08-01-92   
               LIKE_IT         138989 08-01-92   
               LOVE_L_L        142368 08-01-92         
               LUCRECE          99295 08-01-92   
               M_VENICE        135068 08-01-92  
               M_WIVES         142470 08-01-92  
               MACBETH         117835 08-01-92  
               MEASURE         140620 08-01-92  
               MN_DREAM        109568 08-01-92  
               MUCH_ADO        132512 08-01-92  
               OTHELLO         172281 08-01-92  
               P_PILGRM         18672 08-01-92  
               P_TURTLE          2452 08-01-92  
               PERICLES        124295 08-01-92  
               RICHARD2        145350 08-01-92  
               RICHARD3        198374 08-01-92  
               ROMEO_J         158092 08-01-92  
               SONNETS         105448 08-01-92  
               T_SHREW         137861 08-01-92  
               TEMPEST         110836 08-01-92  
               TIMON_AT        124351 08-01-92  
               TITUS_AN        135037 08-01-92  
               TROILUS         176126 08-01-92  
               TWELFTH         128364 08-01-92  
               VENUS_AD         59343 08-01-92  
               VERONA          112108 08-01-92  
               WINTER_T        160226 08-01-92  



IV. Individual Texts

1.   1. All's Well That Ends Well. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)  
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     2. All's Well That Ends Well. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

2.   1. Antony and Cleopatra. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)  
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     2. Antony and Cleopatra. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

3.   1. As You Like It. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)  
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     2. As You Like It. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.    
               (a) unknown edition OTA P-1490-A (MH)

4.   1. The Comedy of Errors. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)  
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy 
          OTA A-1445-A (CR)
     2. The Comedy of Errors. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

5.   1. Coriolanus. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)  
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy 
          OTA A-1444-A (CR)
     2. Coriolanus. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.
     
6.   1. Cymbeline. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     2. Cymbeline. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274

7.   1. Edward III. ([T. Scarlet,] 1596.) STC 7501. 
          Attributed, and possibly in part by Shakespeare.
          OTA U-135-A
     2. Edward III. (S. Stafford, 1599.) STC 7502. Attributed.
 
8.   1. Hamlet (V. Simmes, 1603). STC 22275. So-called bad quarto.
          OTA U-121-A (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy  
     2. Hamlet (J. R[oberts], 1604). STC 22276 
          So-called good quarto.
          OTA U-1064-A
          OTA A-1446-A (CR)
     3. Hamlet (J. R[oberts], 1605). STC 22276a.
          Variant with imprint.
     4. Hamlet ([G. Eld), 1611). STC 22277.
          Another edition (reprint).
     5. Hamlet. F1 (1623). STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     6. Hamlet (W. S[tansby]., c. 1625). STC 22278.
     7. Hamlet. F2 (1632). STC 22274.   
     8. Hamlet (R. Young, 1637). STC 22279. 
     
9.   1. 1 Henry IV. ([P. Short, 1598.) STC 22279a.
          So-called good quarto. Quire C only.
     2. 1 Henry IV. (P. S[hort], 1598.) STC 22280. 
          Another edition of 1.
          OTA U-133-A
     3. 1 Henry IV. (S. S[tafford], 1599.) STC 22281. 
          Another edition (reprint).
     4. 1 Henry IV. (V. Simmes, 1604.) STC 22282. Reprint.
     5. 1 Henry IV. ([J. Windet], 1608.) STC 22283. Reprint.
     6. 1 Henry IV. (W. W[hite], 1613.) STC 22284. Reprint.
     7. 1 Henry IV. (T. P[urfoot], 1622.) STC 22285. Reprint.
     8. Telescoped version of 1  and 2 Henry IV (Dering Ms, 
          Folger Shakespeare Library, ca. 1622).
     9. 1 Henry IV. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-D (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     10. 1 Henry IV. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.
     11. 1 Henry IV. (J. Norton, 1632.) STC 22286.
     12. 1 Henry IV. (J. Norton, 1639.) STC 22287.

10.  1. 2 Henry IV. (V. S[immes], 1600.) STC 22288. 
          So-called good quarto.
          OTA U-134-A (HH) 
     2. 2 Henry IV. (V. S[immes], 1600.) STC 22288a.
          Another issue of 1; E3-4 replaced by E3-6.
     3. Telescoped version of 1  and 2 Henry IV (Dering Ms, 
          Folger Shakespeare Library, ca. 1622).
     4. 2 Henry IV. (F1. 1623) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     5. 2 Henry IV. (F2. 1632) STC 22274.

11.  1. Henry V. (T. Creed, 1600.) STC 22289. 
          So-called bad quarto.
          OTA U-1234-A (LB) 
          CCH H51600Q.TXT (LA)     
     2. Henry V. (T. Creed, 1602.) STC 22290.
     3. Henry V. ([W. Jaggard], 1608.) STC 22291.
     4. Henry V. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-D (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy 
          CCH H51623F.TXT (LA)
     5. Henry V. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

12.  1. 2 Henry VI (Thomas Creed, 1594). STC 26099.
          So-called bad quarto.
          OTA U-2-A (BM)
     2. 3 Henry VI (P[eter] S[hort], 1595). STC 21006. 
          So-called bad quarto.
          OTA U-8-A (HH)
     3. 2 Henry VI (Valentine Simmes, 1600). STC 26100.
          Reprint of 1.
     4. 3 Henry VI (W[illiam] W[hite], 1600). STC 21006a.
     5. 2 Henry VI ([W. Jaggard], 1619). STC 22273.
          Reprint of 1.
     6. 1, 2 and 3 Henry VI. F1 (1623). STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     7. 1, 2 and 3 Henry VI. F2 (1632). STC 22274.

13.  1. Henry VIII. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy 
          OTA U-1482-A (based on Norton facsimile)
          SHA HENRY8 FOLIO1 (HO)
     2. Henry VIII. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

14.  1. Julius Caesar. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy 
          OTA A-1447-A (CR)
               (a) Arden edn. 1965 OTA U-169-A
     2. Julius Caesar. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

15.  1. King John. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     2. King John. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

16.  1. King Lear. ([N. Okes], 1608.) STC 22292. 
          So-called doubtful quarto.
          OTA U-123-A (HH)
          OTA A-1448-A (CR) 
          CCH KL1608Q.TXT (LA)               
     2. King Lear. ([W. Jaggard], 1608 [1619].) STC 22293.
     3. King Lear. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy 
          OTA A-1456-A (CR) 
          CCH LK1623F.TXT (LA)                    
     4. King Lear. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

17.  1. Locrine. (T. Creed, 1595.) STC 21528. Attributed. 
          In 3rd Folio but not now accepted as Shakespeare's.

18.  1. The London Prodigal. (T. C][reed], 1606.) 
          STC 22333. Attributed. In Third Folio, but not 
          now accepted as Shakespeare's.

19.  1. Love's Labour's Lost. (W. W[hite], 1598.) 
          STC 22294. So-called good quarto. 
          OTA U-122-A (HH) 
          See OTALLLQ1 CORRECTN (SHA) for corrigenda 
          by Kenneth Steele.
     2. Love's Labour's Lost. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy  
          See OTALLLF1 CORRECTN (SHA) for corrigenda by
          Kenneth Steele.
     3. Love's Labour's Lost. (W. S[tansby], 1631. STC 22295.
     4. Love's Labour's Lost. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

20.  1. Macbeth. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy 
          OTA A-1449-A  (CR)
     2. Macbeth. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.
               (a) Arden edn. OTA U*-1381-A (WL)
               (b) Arden edn. in dBase OTA U-1387-A (WL)
21.  1. Measure for Measure. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     2. Measure for Measure. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

22.  1. Merchant of Venice. (J. R[oberts], 1600).
           STC 22296. So-called good quarto.
           OTA U-126-A (HH)
     2. Merchant of Venice. (J. Roberts, 1600 [1619]). 
          STC 22297. Reprint.
     3. Merchant of Venice. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     4. Merchant of Venice. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.
     5. Merchant of Venice. (M. P[arsons], 1637.) STC 22298.

23.  1. Merry Wives of Windsor. (T. C[reed], 1602.) 
          OTA U-1057-A (HH)  STC 22299.
     2. Merry Wives of Windsor. ([W. Jaggard], 1619.)
          STC 22300. Reprint.
     3. Merry Wives of Windsor. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     4. Merry Wives of Windsor. (T. H[arper], 1630.) STC 22301.
     5. Merry Wives of Windsor. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

24.  1. Midsummer Night's Dream. ([R. Bradock], 1600.) 
          STC 22302. So-called good quarto.
          OTA U-125-A (HH) 
     2. Midsummer Night's Dream. (J. Roberts, 1600. [1619]).
          STC 22303. Reprint.
     3. Midsummer Night's Dream. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     4. Midsummer Night's Dream. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

25.  1. Much Ado about Nothing. (V. S[immes], 1600.) 
          STC 22304. So-called good quarto.
          OTA U-120-A (HH) 
     2. Much Ado about Nothing. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     3. Much Ado about Nothing. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

26.  1. Othello. (N. O[kes], 1622.) STC 22305.
          So-called good quarto.
          OTA U-124-A (HH)
          OTA A-1450-A (CR)
     2. Othello. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy 
     3. Othello. (A. M[athewes], 1630.) STC 22306.
     4. Othello. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

27.  1. The Passionate Pilgrim. ([T. Judson, 1599?]). 
          STC 22341.5. Some poems in this collection have 
          been accepted as Shakespeare's.
          OTA A-529-A (HH) 
     2. The Passionate Pilgrim. ([T. Judson,] 1599.) STC 22342.
     3. The Passionate Pilgrim. (W. Jaggard, 1612.) STC 22343.

28.  1. Pericles. ([W. White,] 1609.) STC 22334. Attributed. 
          So-called bad or doubtful quarto.
          Regarded as a co-authored piece.   
          OTA U-127-A (HH) 
     2. Pericles. ([W. White,] 1609.) STC 22335. Attributed. 
          Reprint.
     3. Pericles. (S. S[tafford], 1611.) STC 22336. Attributed.
          Reprint.
     4. 1 Henry VI,  Richard Duke of York,  and Pericles. 
          ([W. Jaggard], 1619. STC  22273. Reprint.
     5. Pericles. (J. N[orton,] 1630.) STC 22337. Reprint.
     6. Pericles. ([J. N[orton,] 1630.) STC 22338.
          Variant of 5, with imprint. 
     7. Pericles. (T. Cotes, 1635.) STC 22339. Reprint.

29.  1. The Phoenix and the Turtle. In Robert Chester's
          Loves Martyr. ([R. Field,] 1601.) STC 5119. Attributed
          and generally accepted as Shakespeare's.

30.  1. Poems. (T. Cotes, 1640.) STC 22344.
          Includes all but eight of the sonnets, `Lover's
          Complaint,' and `Phoenix and Turtle.'

31.  1. The Puritan. [By Thomas Middleton.] (G. Eld, 1607.)
          STC 21531. Attributed. In Third Folio but not now
          accepted as Shakespeare's.

32.  1. Rape of Lucrece. (R. Field, 1594.) STC 22345.       
     2. Rape of Lucrece. (P. S[hort], 1598.) STC 22346.
     3. Rape of Lucrece. (J. H[arrison], 1600.) STC 22347.
     4. Rape of Lucrece. (J. H[arrison], 1600.) STC 22348.
     5. Rape of Lucrece. (N. O[kes], 1607.) STC 22349.
     6. Rape of Lucrece. (T. S[nodham], 161.) STC 22350.
     7. Rape of Lucrece. (J. B[eale], 1624.) STC 22351.
     8. Rape of Lucrece. (R. B[adger], 1632.) STC 22352.

33.  1. Richard II. (V. Simmes, 1597.) STC 22307.
          So-called good quarto.
          OTA U-129-A (HH)
     2. Richard II. (V. Simmes, 1598.) STC 22308. Reprint.
     3. Richard II. (V. Simmes, 1598.) STC 22309. Reprint.
     4. Richard II. (W. W[hite], 1608.) STC 22310. Reprint.
     5. Richard II. (W. W[hite], 1608.) STC 22311.
          Variant, with titlepage reset.
     6. Richard II. ([T. Purfoot], 1615.) STC 22312. Reprint.
     7. Richard II. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     8. Richard II. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.
     9. Richard II. (J. Norton, 1634.)

34.  1. Richard III. (V. Sims, 1597). STC 22313.
          So-called doubtful quarto.
          OTA U-130-A (HH)
     2. Richard III. (T. Creed, 1598). STC 22315. Reprint.
     3. Richard III. (T. Creed, 1602). STC 22316. Reprint.
     4. Richard III. (T. Creed, 1605). STC 22317. Reprint.
     5. Richard III. (T. Creed, 1612). STC 22318. Reprint.
     6. Richard III. (T. Purfoot, 1622). STC 22319. Reprint.
     7. Richard III. (F1. 1623). STC 22273. OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy  
     8. Richard III. (F2. 1632). STC 22274.
     9. Richard III. (J. Norton, 1629.) STC 22320.
     10. Richard III. (J. Norton, 1634.) STC 22321.
          (a) Edn. by J. Hankey OTA A-1306-B

35.  1. Richard, Duke of York. [version of 3 Henry VI.]
          See 12.2.
     2. Richard, Duke of York. (W. W[hite], 1600.) STC 21006a.
     3. 1 Henry VI, Richard, Duke of York, and Pericles. 
          ([W. Jaggard], 1619.) STC  22273.
     
36.  1. Romeo and Juliet. (J. Danter, 1597.) STC 22322. 
          So-called bad quarto.
          OTA U-1220-A (LB) 
     2. Romeo and Juliet. (T. Creed, 1599.) STC 22323. 
          So-called good quarto.
          OTA U-128-A (HH) 
     3. Romeo and Juliet. ([J. Windet], 1609.) STC 22324.
     4. Romeo and Juliet. ([W. Stansby, 1622.] STC 22325.
     5. Romeo and Juliet. (J. Smethwicke, [1622]). STC 22325a.
          Variant of 5.
     6. Romeo and Juliet. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     7. Romeo and Juliet. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.
     8. Romeo and Juliet. (R. Young, 1637.) STC 22326.

37.  1. Shake-speares Sonnets. (G. Eld, 1609.) STC 22353. 
          OTA U-137-A
          OTA U-138-A
          OTA U-1496-A (Apsley imprint from Huntington-Bridgwater
coll.) 
          SAK SONNETS TAG1609Q (HC)
     2. Shake-speares Sonnets. (G. Eld, 1609.) STC 22353a.
          Variant of 1, with imprint.

38.  1. Sir John Oldcastle. (V. S[immes], 1600.) STC 18795. 
          Attributed in Third Folio, but not now accepted as
          Shakespeare's.
     2. Sir John Oldcastle . ([W. Jaggard,] 1600 [1619].) 
          STC 18796. Attributed.

39.  1. Thomas Lord Cromwell. ([R. Read,] 1602.) STC 21532. 
          Attributed in Third Folio but not now accepted as
          Shakespeare's.
40.  2. Thomas Lord Cromwell. (T. Snodham, 1613.) STC 21532.
          Attributed.

41.  1. Sir Thomas More. B.L. Harleian MS. 7368.
          Only Hand D is attributed to Shakespeare.
          OTA U-11-A (ed. W.W. Greg 1911 Malone Soc.)

42.  1. The Taming of a Shrew. (P. Short, 1594.)
          STC 23667. Sometimes thought a bad quarto of
          Shakespeare's the Shrew.
          OTA U*-1364-A (MS)
     2. The Taming of a Shrew. (P. S[hort], 1596.) STC 23668.
          Reprint.
     3. The Taming of a Shrew. (V. S[immes], 1607.) STC 23669.
          Reprint.

43.  1. The Taming of the Shrew. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy 
          OTA A-1451-A (CR)
     2. The Taming of the Shrew. (W. S[tansby], 1631.).
          STC 22327.
     3. The Taming of the Shrew. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

44.  1. The Tempest. (F1. 1623.) STC  22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy 
          OTA A-1452-A (CR)
     2. The Tempest. (F2. 1632.) STC  22274.
               (a) various edns. OTA A-659-C

45.  1. Timon of Athens. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     2. Timon of Athens. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

46.  1. Titus Andronicus. (John Danter, 1594). STC 22328. 
          So-called good quarto.
          OTA U-131-A (HH)
     2. Titus Andronicus. (J. R[oberts], 1600). STC 22329.
          Reprint.
     3. Titus Andronicus. (E. Allde, 1611). STC 22330.
          Reprint.
     4. Titus Andronicus. F1 (1623). STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     5. Titus Andronicus. F2 (1632). STC 22274.

47.  1. Troilus and Cressida. (G. Eld, 1609.) STC 22331. 
          So-called good quarto.
          OTA U-132-A (HH)
     2. Troilus and Cressida. (G. Eld, 1609.) STC 22332.
          Another issue of 1.
     3. Troilus and Cressida. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     4. Troilus and Cressida. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

48.  1. Troublesome Reign of King John; and the second part. 
          ([T. Orwin,] 1591.) STC 14644. Sometimes
          thought a bad quarto of Shakespeare's King John.
          OTA U-5-B
     2. Troublesome Reign of King John; and the second part.
           (V. Simmes, 1611.) STC 14646. Attributed.   
     3. Troublesome Reign of King John; and the second part. 
          (A. Mathewes, 1622.) STC 14647. Attributed.

49.  1. Twelfth Night. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273.
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy 
          OTA A-1453-A (CR)
     2. Twelfth Night. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

50.  1. The Two Gentlemen of Verona. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273.
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy.
     2. The Two Gentlemen of Verona. (F2. 1632.)
          STC 22274.

51.  1. The Two Noble Kinsmen. (T. Cotes, 1634.) STC 11075.
          Attributed; with John Fletcher. So-called
          good quarto.
          OTA U-136-A

52.  1. The Winter's Tale. (F1. 1623.) STC 22273. 
          OTA U-199-E (HH)
          OTA U-1694-E (PW) SGML-tagged version of HH copy
     2. The Winter's Tale. (F2. 1632.) STC 22274.

53.  1. Venus and Adonis. (R. Field, 1593.) STC 22354.
     2. Venus and Adonis. (R. Field, 1594.) STC 22355.
     3. Venus and Adonis. ([R. Field?, 1595?]). STC 22356.
     4. Venus and Adonis. (R. F[ield], 1596.) STC 22357.
     5. Venus and Adonis. ([P. Short], 1599.) STC 22358.
     6. Venus and Adonis. ([R. Bradock], 1599.) STC 22358a.
     7. Venus and Adonis. ([R. Bradock, 1602?) STC 22359.
     8. Venus and Adonis. ([R. Raworth,] 1602.) STC 22360.
     9. Venus and Adonis. ([H. Lownes], 1602.) STC 22360a.
     10. Venus and Adonis. (?, 1602 [1610?]. STC 22360b.
     11. Venus and Adonis. ([W. Stansby,] 1617.) STC 22361.
     12. Venus and Adonis. ([F. Kingston,] 1620.) STC 22362.
     13. Venus and Adonis. (J. Wreittoun, 1627.) STC 22363.
     14. Venus and Adonis. (J. H[aviland,] 1630.) STC 22364.
     15. Venus and Adonis. ([J. Haviland, 1630-36?]) STC 22365.
     16. Venus and Adonis. (J. H[aviland,] 1636.) STC 22366.

54.  1. A Yorkshire Tragedy. (R. B[radock], 1608.) STC 22340.
          Attributed.
     2. A Yorkshire Tragedy. ([W. Jaggard], 1619.) STC 22341. 
          Attributed.    

Appendix B. Six Electronic Editions of Shakespeare's Sonnets 1-2: A Comparison

File:          /pub/misc/shakespeare.tar.Z (2297961 bytes) at
               isy.liu.se (ASCI)
Distributor:   Grady Ward, 571 Belden St., Ste. A, Monterey, CA
               93940, USA. Voice: (408) 373-1491. 
               E-mail: grady@ btr.com
Editor:        Stated (incorrectly?) to be Stratford Town Edition
               (1911?)
Source:        Shakespeare-on-Disk CD-ROM
Restrictions:  public domain (copyright expired; encoding from
               reissue stripped)
Size:          113,060 bytes
Tags:          none
Transcription: normalized spelling, punctuation, word-spacing,
               capitalization; emends ("light'st" for "lights",
               "tatter'd" for "totter'd"); chooses singular when
               adding apostrophe to "beauties"; no signatures,
               catchwords, running-titles.
Date:          3 November 1992

I.

FROM fairest creatures we desire increase,
That thereby beauty's rose might never die,
But as the riper should by time decease,
His tender heir might bear his memory:
But thou, contracted to thine own bright eyes,
Feed'st thy light'st flame with self-substantial fuel,
Making a famine where abundance lies,
Thyself thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel.
Thou that art now the world's fresh ornament
And only herald to the gaudy spring,
Within thine own bud buriest thy content
And, tender churl, makest waste in niggarding.
  Pity the world, or else this glutton be,
  To eat the world's due, by the grave and thee.

II.

When forty winters shall beseige thy brow,
And dig deep trenches in thy beauty's field,
Thy youth's proud livery, so gazed on now,
Will be a tatter'd weed, of small worth held:
Then being ask'd where all thy beauty lies,
Where all the treasure of thy lusty days,
To say, within thine own deep-sunken eyes,
Were an all-eating shame and thriftless praise.
How much more praise deserved thy beauty's use,
If thou couldst answer 'This fair child of mine
Shall sum my count and make my old excuse,'
Proving his beauty by succession thine!
  This were to be new made when thou art old,
  And see thy blood warm when thou feel'st it cold.

*****************************************************

File:          SON.TXT (ASCII)
Distributor:   Oxford University Press
Editors:       Stanley Wells and Gary Taylor 
Source:        New Oxford Shakespeare
Restrictions:  Restricted; commercial
Size:          135,737 bytes
Tags:           Number in OUP collection
                Shorttitle of poem
                Date of composition
                Genre
                Author
                Type of text
               [[ ]] `Ignore' brackets
                Sonnet number
Transcription: normalized spelling, punctuation, word-spacing,
               capitalization; emends ("tattered" for "totter'd");
               chooses singular when adding apostrophe to
               "beauties"; no signatures, catchwords, running-
               titles.
Date:          1989

   0  
   0  [[Sonnet]] 1
   0  
   1   From fairest creatures we desire increase,
   2  That thereby beauty's rose might never die,
   3  But as the riper should by time decease,
   4  His tender heir might bear his memory;
   5  But thou, contracted to thine own bright eyes,
   6  Feed'st thy light's flame with self-substantial fuel,
   7  Making a famine where abundance lies,
   8  Thyself thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel.
   9  Thou that art now the world's fresh ornament
  10  And only herald to the gaudy spring
  11  Within thine own bud buriest thy content,
  12  And, tender churl, mak'st waste in niggarding.
  13  Pity the world, or else this glutton be:
  14  To eat the world's due, by the grave and thee.
      

   0  
   0  [[Sonnet]] 2
   0  
   1  When forty winters shall besiege thy brow
   2  And dig deep trenches in thy beauty's field,
   3  Thy youth's proud livery, so gazed on now,
   4  Will be a tattered weed, of small worth held.
   5  Then being asked where all thy beauty lies,
   6  Where all the treasure of thy lusty days,
   7  To say within thine own deep-sunken eyes
   8  Were an all-eating shame and thriftless praise.
   9  How much more praise deserved thy beauty's use
  10  If thou couldst answer `This fair child of mine
  11  Shall sum my count, and make my old excuse",
  12  Proving his beauty by succession thine.
  13  This were to be new made when thou art old,
  14  And see thy blood warm when thou feel'st it cold.
      

*******************************************************

File:          SHAKR&P.BYB (non-ASCII; can only be used with
               WordCruncher)
Distributor:   Electronic Text Corporation
Editors:       G. Evans and others 
Source:        Riverside Shakespeare
Restrictions:  Restricted; commercial
Size:          885,887 bytes
Tags:          |T   title
               |A   poem
               |L   line number
Transcription: normalized spelling, punctuation, word-spacing,
               capitalization; chooses singular when adding
               apostrophe to "beauties"; no signatures, catchwords,
               running-titles; does not often emend.
Date:          1974; 1988


|A1                  [1]

|L1 From fairest creatures we desire increase,
|L2 That thereby beauty's rose might never die,
|L3 But as the riper should by time decease, 
|L4 His tender heir might bear his memory:
|L5 But thou, contracted to thine own bright eyes, 
|L6 Feed'st thy light's flame with self-substantial fuel, 
|L7 Making a famine where abundance lies,
|L8 Thyself thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel.
|L9 Thou that art now the world's fresh ornament,
|L10 And only herald to the gaudy spring,
|L11 Within thine own bud buriest thy content,
|L12 And, tender chorl, mak'st waste in niggarding:
|L13   Pity the world, or else this glutton be,
|L14   To eat the world's due, by the grave and thee.

|A2                   2

|L1 When forty winters shall besiege thy brow,
|L2 And dig deep trenches in thy beauty's field,
|L3 Thy youth's proud livery, so gaz'd on now,
|L4 Will be a totter'd weed of small worth held:
|L5 Then being ask'd, where all thy beauty lies,
|L6 Where all the treasure of thy lusty days,
|L7 To say within thine own deep-sunken eyes
|L8 Were an all-eating shame, and thriftless praise.
|L9 How much more praise deserv'd thy beauty's use, 
|L10 If thou couldst answer, "This fair child of mine
|L11 Shall sum my count, and make my old excuse," 
|L12 Proving his beauty by succession thine. 
|L13   This were to be new made when thou art old,
|L14   And see thy blood warm when thou feel'st it cold.

********************************************************

File:          \books\shakespr\SONNETS (ASCII)
Distributor:   Desktop Library CDROM, Walnut Creek CDROM
Editor:        unknown
Source:   unknown 
Restrictions:  public domain
Size:          105,448 bytes
Tags:          none
Transcription: normalized spelling, punctuation, word-spacing,
               capitalization; chooses singular when adding
               apostrophe to "beauties"; no signatures, catchwords,
               running-titles; silently emends (2.4 `tattered').
Date:          August 1, 1992


                     1
  From fairest creatures we desire increase,
  That thereby beauty's rose might never die,
  But as the riper should by time decease,
  His tender heir might bear his memory:
  But thou contracted to thine own bright eyes,
  Feed'st thy light's flame with self-substantial fuel,
  Making a famine where abundance lies,
  Thy self thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel:
  Thou that art now the world's fresh ornament,
  And only herald to the gaudy spring,
  Within thine own bud buriest thy content,
  And tender churl mak'st waste in niggarding:
    Pity the world, or else this glutton be,
    To eat the world's due, by the grave and thee.


                     2
  When forty winters shall besiege thy brow,
  And dig deep trenches in thy beauty's field,
  Thy youth's proud livery so gazed on now,
  Will be a tattered weed of small worth held:
  Then being asked, where all thy beauty lies,
  Where all the treasure of thy lusty days;
  To say within thine own deep sunken eyes,
  Were an all-eating shame, and thriftless praise.
  How much more praise deserved thy beauty's use,
  If thou couldst answer 'This fair child of mine
  Shall sum my count, and make my old excuse'
  Proving his beauty by succession thine.
    This were to be new made when thou art old,
    And see thy blood warm when thou feel'st it cold.


*******************************************************

File:          SONNETS 1609Q (ASCII)
Distributor:   SHAKSPER file-server (SHAKSPER@utoronto.bitnet)
Editor:        Kenneth Steele and Hardy M. Cook
Source:        Facsimiles of Huntington-Bridgewater copy, Bodleian
               copy, and Folger Shakespeare Library copy (Aspley
               imprint) 
Restrictions:  Free for non-commercial usage
Size:          125,250 bytes
Tags:          ... for italics
Transcription: no signatures, catchwords, running-titles, font
               distinctions, ligatures, etc.
Date:          1 February 1992

                       SHAKE-SPEARES,
                       SONNETS.

         FRom fairest creatures we desire increase,
         That thereby beauties Rose might neuer die,
         But as the riper should by time decease,
         His tender heire might beare his memory:
         But thou contracted to thine owne bright eyes,
         Feed'st thy lights flame with selfe substantiall fewell,
         Making a famine where aboundance lies,
         Thy selfe thy foe,to thy sweet selfe too cruell:
         Thou that art now the worlds fresh ornament,
         And only herauld to the gaudy spring,
         Within thine owne bud buriest thy content,
         And tender chorle makst wast in niggarding:
           Pitty the world,or else this glutton be,
           To eate the worlds due,by the graue and thee.

                              2
         VVHen fortie Winters shall beseige thy brow,
         And digge deep trenches in thy beauties field,
         Thy youthes proud liuery so gaz'd on now,
         Wil be a totter'd weed of smal worth held:
         Then being askt,where all thy beautie lies,
         Where all the treasure of thy lusty daies;
         To say within thine owne deepe sunken eyes,
         Were an all-eating shame,and thriftlesse praise.
         How much more praise deseru'd thy beauties vse,
         If thou couldst answere this faire child of mine
         Shall sum my count,and make my old excuse
         Proouing his beautie by succession thine.
           This were to be new made when thou art ould,
           And see thy blood warme when thou feel'st it could,


*************************************************************

File:          SONNETS TAG1609Q (ASCII)
Distributor:   SHAKSPER file-server
Editor:        Kenneth Steele and Hardy Cook
Source:        Facsimiles of Huntington-Bridgewater copy, Bodleian
               copy, and Folger Shakespeare Library copy (Aspley
                imprint) 
Restrictions:  Free for non-commercial usage
Size:          190,258 bytes
Tags:          

for signature [[...]] delimiting non-verse for sonnet number {...} for italicized text Transcription: only distinguishes italic font; no ligatures Date: undated [1992]

[[ SHAKE-SPEARES, {SONNETS}. ]] FRom fairest creatures we desire increase, That thereby beauties {Rose} might neuer die, But as the riper should by time decease, His tender heire might beare his memory: But thou contracted to thine owne bright eyes, Feed'st thy lights flame with selfe substantiall fewell, Making a famine where aboundance lies, Thy selfe thy foe,to thy sweet selfe too cruell: Thou that art now the worlds fresh ornament, And only herauld to the gaudy spring, Within thine owne bud buriest thy content, And tender chorle makst wast in niggarding: Pitty the world,or else this glutton be, To eate the worlds due,by the graue and thee. 2 VVHen fortie Winters shall beseige thy brow, And digge deep trenches in thy beauties field, Thy youthes proud liuery so gaz'd on now, Wil be a totter'd weed of smal worth held: Then being askt,where all thy beautie lies, Where all the treasure of thy lusty daies; To say within thine owne deepe sunken eyes, Were an all-eating shame,and thriftlesse praise. How much more praise deseru'd thy beauties vse, If thou couldst answere this faire child of mine Shall sum my count,and make my old excuse Proouing his beautie by succession thine.

[[ B This SHAKE-SPEARES ]] This were to be new made when thou art ould, And see thy blood warme when thou feel'st it could, ********************************************************* File: 1609coco.txt, 1609sgml.txt (ASCII) Distributor: forthcoming SHAKSPER file-server and Centre for Computing in the Humanities (Toronto) Editor: Hardy Cook, assisted by Ian Lancashire Source: STC 22353, 22353a (Folger Library) Restrictions: Free for non-commercial usage Size: ca. 247 Kb Tags: page number signature catchword forme texttype (heading, sonnet number, runningtitle, signature, catchword, text, etc.) line number font [[...]] `ignore' brackets poem number rhyme scheme Transcription: Distinguishes type and font (Roman, small, capitals, italics, double, 2-line, titling, block, superscript) and ligatures, but not damaged types and the two dominant forms of Renaissance pica, S-face and Y-face. Some current tags subject to change. Date: December 1992 SHAKE-SPEARES, SONNETS. FRom faire{|st} creatures we de{|si}re increa|se, [[[indent 4]]] That thereby beauties Ro|se might neuer die, But as the riper {|sh}ould by time decea|se, His tender heire might beare his memory: But thou contra{ct}ed to thine owne bright eyes, Feed'{|st} thy lights {fl}ame with |selfe |sub{|st}antiall fewell, Making a famine where aboundance lies, Thy |selfe thy foe,to thy |sweet |selfe too cruell: Thou that art now the worlds fre{|sh} ornament, And only herauld to the gaudy |spring, Within thine owne bud burie{|st} thy content, And tender chorle mak{|st} wa{|st} in niggarding: [[[indent 2]]] Pitty the world,or el|se this glutton be, [[[indent 2]]] To eate the worlds due,by the graue and thee. 2 VVHen fortie Winters {|sh}all be|seige thy brow, [[[indent 4]]] And digge deep trenches in thy beauties {fi}eld, Thy youthes proud liuery |so gaz'd on now, Wil be a totter'd weed of |smal worth held: Then being askt,where all thy beautie lies, Where all the trea|sure of thy lu{|st}y daies; To |say within thine owne deepe |sunken eyes, Were an all-eating {|sh}ame,and thriftle{|s|s}e prai|se. How much more prai|se de|seru'd thy beauties v|se, If thou could{|st} an|swere this faire child of mine Shall |sum my count,and make my old excu|se Proouing his beautie by |succe{|s|si}on thine. B This SHAKE-SPEARES [[[indent 2]]] This were to be new made when thou art ould, [[[indent 2]]] And |see thy blood warme when thou feel'{|st} it could,