from Short-Title Catalogue 13675.
Renaissance Electronic Texts 1.2.
© 1994, 1997 Ian Lancashire (ed.)
University of Toronto

UTEL Home Page.

in is declared that Common Prayer and Sacra­
ments ought to bee ministred in a tongue
that is vnderstood of the

[II.9.1-1]  AMong the manifold exercises of GODS
[II.9.1-2]  people (deare Christians) there is none
[II.9.1-3]  more necessary for all estates, and at all
[II.9.1-4]  times, then is publike prayer, and the
[II.9.1-5]  due vse of Sacraments. For in the first,
[II.9.1-6]  wee beg at GODS hands all such
[II.9.1-7]  things, as otherwise we can not obtain.
[II.9.1-8]  And in the other, hee imbraceth vs, and
[II.9.1-9]  offereth himselfe to bee embraced of vs.
[II.9.1-10]  Knowing therefore that these two exer­
[II.9.1-11]  cises are so necessary for vs, let vs not
[II.9.1-12]  thinke it vnmeet to consider, first what
[II.9.1-13]  prayer is, and what a Sacrament is,
[II.9.1-14]  and then how many sorts of prayers there bee, and how many Sacra­
[II.9.1-15]  ments, so shall wee the better vnderstand how to vse them aright. To
[II.9.1-16]  know what they be, Saint Augustine teacheth vs in his booke entituled,
[II.9.1-17]  Of the spirite and the soule
. He sayth thus of prayer: Prayer is (saith

spiritu & a­


[II.9.1-18]  hee) the deuotion of the minde, that is to say, the returning to GOD,
[II.9.1-19]  through a godly and humble affection, which affection is certaine wil­
[II.9.1-20]  ling and sweete inclining of the minde it selfe towards GOD. And in
[II.9.1-21]  the second booke against the aduersary of the Law and the Prophets, hee

contra ad­
uersarios le­
gis & proph.


[II.9.1-22]  calleth Sacraments, holy signes. And writing to Bonifacius of the Bap­
[II.9.1-23]  tisme of infants, he saith, If Sacraments had not a certaine similitude
[II.9.1-24]  of those things whereof they bee Sacraments, they should bee no Sacra­
[II.9.1-25]  ments at all. And of this similitude they doe for the most part receiue the
[II.9.1-26]  names of the selfe things they signifie. By these wordes of Saint Au­



[II.9.1-27]  gustine it appeareth, that hee alloweth the common description of a Sa­
[II.9.1-28]  crament, which is, that it is a visible signe of an inuisible grace, that is to
[II.9.1-29]  say, that setteth out to the eyes and other outward senses, the inward
[II.9.1-30]  working of GODS free mercy, and doeth (as it were) seale in our hearts
[II.9.1-31]  the promises of GOD. And so was circumcision a Sacrament, which
[II.9.1-32]  preached vnto the outward senses the inward cutting away of the fore­
[II.9.1-33]  skin of the heart, and sealed and made sure in the hearts of the Circum­
[II.9.1-34]  cised the promise of GOD touching the promised seede that they loo­
[II.9.1-35]  ked for. Nowe let vs see how many sorts of prayer, and howe many
[II.9.1-36]  Sacraments there bee. In the scriptures wee reade of three sorts of


[II.9.1-37]  prayer, whereof two are priuate, and the thirde is common. The first is
[II.9.1-38]  that which Saint Paul speaketh of in his Epistle to Timothie, sayinge,
[II.9.1-39]  I will that men pray in euery place, lifting vp pure handes, with
[II.9.1-40]  out wrath or striuing. And it is the deuout lifting vp of the mind to GOD
[II.9.1-41]  without the vtteringe of the hearts griefe or desire by open voyce. Of


[II.9.1-42]  this prayer wee haue example in the first booke of the Kinges in Anna the
[II.9.1-43]  mother of Samuel, when in the heauinesse of her heart shee prayed in the
[II.9.1-44]  Temple, desiring to be made fruiteful. Shee prayed in her heart (saith the
[II.9.1-45]  text) but there was no voyce hearde. After this sort must all Christians
[II.9.1-46]  pray, not once in a weeke , or once in a day onely: but as Saint Paul

Iames 5.

[II.9.1-47]  writeth to the Thessalonians, without ceasing. And as Saint Iames
[II.9.1-48]  writeth, The continuall prayer of a iust man is of much force. The se­
[II.9.1-49]  cond sort of prayer is spoken of in the Gospel of Matthew, where it is sayd,


[II.9.1-50]  when thou prayest, enter into thy secret closet, and when thou hast
[II.9.1-51]  shutte the doore to thee, pray vnto thy Father in secret, and thy Father
[II.9.1-52]  which seeth in secret shall reward thee. Of this sort of prayer there bee
[II.9.1-53]  sundry examples in the Scriptures, but it shall suffice to rehearse one,
[II.9.1-54]  which is written in the actes of the Apostles.

Actes 10.

[II.9.1-55]  Cornelius, a deuoute man, a captaine of the Italian army, sayth to
[II.9.1-56]  Peter: that being in his house in prayer at the ninth houre, there ap­
[II.9.1-57]  peared vnto him one in a white garment &c. This man prayed vnto
[II.9.1-58]  GOD in secret, and was rewarded openly. These bee the two pri­
[II.9.1-59]  uate sorts of prayer. The one mentall, that is to say, the deuout lifting
[II.9.1-60]  vp of the minde to GOD: And the other vocall, that is to say, the secret
[II.9.1-61]  vttering of the griefes and desires of the heart with wordes, but yet in a
[II.9.1-62]  secret closet, or some solitary place. The third sort of prayer is publike or
[II.9.1-63]  common. Of this prayer speaketh our Sauiour Christ, when he sayth,


[II.9.1-64]  If two of you shall agree vpon earth vpon any thing, whatsoeuer ye shall
[II.9.1-65]  aske, my Father which is in heauen shall doe it for you, for wheresoe­
[II.9.1-66]  euer two or three bee gathered together in my name, there am I in the
[II.9.1-67]  middest of them. Although GOD hath promised to heare vs when
[II.9.1-68]  we pray priuately, so it be done faithfully and deuoutly (for he saith, Call


[II.9.1-69]  vpon me in the day of thy trouble, and I will heare thee. And Elias be­

Iames 5.

[II.9.1-70]  ing but a mortall man, saith Saint Iames, prayed, and heauen was shut
[II.9.1-71]  three yeeres and sixe moneths, and againe he prayed, and the heauen gaue
[II.9.1-72]  raine:) Yet by the histories of the Bible it appeareth, that publike and
[II.9.1-73]  common prayer is most auaileable before GOD, and therefore is much
[II.9.1-74]  to be lamented that it is no better esteemed among vs which professe to be

Ionas 3

[II.9.1-75]  but one body in Christ. When the city of Niniue was threatned to be destroy­
[II.9.1-76]  ed within fortie dayes, the Prince and the people ioyned themselues to­
[II.9.1-77]  gether in publike prayer and fasting, and were preserued. In the Prophet
[II.9.1-78]  Ioel, GOD commanded a fasting to be proclaimed, and the people to be

Ioel 2.

[II.9.1-79]  gathered together, young and olde, man and woman, and are taught to
[II.9.1-80]  say with one voyce: Spare vs, O Lord, spare thy people, and let not
[II.9.1-81]  thine inheritance bee brought to confusion. When the Iewes should
[II.9.1-82]  haue beene destroyed all in one day through the malice of Haman, at the
[II.9.1-83]  commaundement of Hester they fasted and prayed, and were preserued.

Hester 4.

[II.9.1-84]  When Holophernes besieged Bethulia by the aduice of Iudith they fasted and

Iudith 8.

[II.9.1-85]  prayed, and were deliuered. When Peter was in prison, the congregation


[II.9.1-86]  ioyned themselues together in prayer, and Peter was wonderfully deliue­
[II.9.1-87]  red. By these histories it appeareth, that common or publike prayer is of
[II.9.1-88]  great force to obteine mercy, & deliuerance at our heauenly Fathers hand.

[II.9.1-89]  Therefore brethren, I beseech you, euen for the tender mercies of GOD,
[II.9.1-90]  let vs no longer bee negligent in this behalfe: but as the people willing
[II.9.1-91]  to receiue at GODS hand such good things as in the common prayer of
[II.9.1-92]  the Church are craued, let vs ioyne our selues together in the place of com­
[II.9.1-93]  mon prayer, and with one voyce and one heart, begge at our heauenly
[II.9.1-94]  father all those things, which hee knoweth to bee necessary for vs.
[II.9.1-95]  I forbid you not priuate prayer, but I exhort you to esteeme common
[II.9.1-96]  prayer as it is worthy. And before all things, bee sure, that in all these
[II.9.1-97]  three sortes of prayer, your mindes bee deuoutly lifted vp to GOD,
[II.9.1-98]  else are your prayers to no purpose, and this saying shalbe verified in you:
[II.9.1-99]  This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is farre from


[II.9.1-100]  mee. Thus much for the three sortes of prayer, whereof we reade in the


[II.9.1-101]  Scriptures. Now with like, or rather more breuitie, you shall heare
[II.9.1-102]  how many Sacraments there be, that were instituted by our Sauiour
[II.9.1-103]  Christ, and are to bee continued, and receiued of euery Christian in due
[II.9.1-104]  time and order, and for such purpose as our Sauiour Christ willed
[II.9.1-105]  them to be receiued. And as for the number of them, if they should be con­
[II.9.1-106]  sidered according to the exact signification of a Sacrament, namely, for
[II.9.1-107]  the visible signes, expresly commanded in the new Testament, whereun­
[II.9.1-108]  to is annexed the promise of free forgiuenesse of our sinne, and of our holi­
[II.9.1-109]  nesse and ioyning in Christ, there bee but two: namely Baptisme, and
[II.9.1-110]  the Supper of the Lord. For although absolution hath the promise
[II.9.1-111]  of forgiuenesse of sinne, yet by the expresse worde of the new Testament
[II.9.1-112]  it hath not this promise annexed and tyed to the visible signe, which
[II.9.1-113]  is imposition of hands. For this visible signe (I meane laying on of
[II.9.1-114]  hands) is not expresly commanded in the new Testament to be vsed in ab­
[II.9.1-115]  solution, as the visible signes in Baptisme and the Lords Supper are:
[II.9.1-116]  and therefore absolution is no such Sacrament as Baptisme and the
[II.9.1-117]  Communion are. And though the ordering of ministers hath his visible
[II.9.1-118]  signe and promise: yet it lackes the promise of remission of sinne, as all
[II.9.1-119]  other sacraments besides the two aboue named doe. Therefore neither
[II.9.1-120]  it, nor any other sacrament else, bee such Sacraments as Baptisme and
[II.9.1-121]  the Communion are. But in a generall acception, the mane of a Sacra­
[II.9.1-122]  ment may be attributed to any thing whereby an holy thing is signified.
[II.9.1-123]  In which vnderstanding of the word, the ancient writers haue giuen this
[II.9.1-124]  name, not only to the other fiue, commonly of late yeres taken and vsed for
[II.9.1-125]  supplying the number of the seuen Sacraments: but also to diuers and

de ceona
Domini, &


[II.9.1-127]  sundry other ceremonies, as to oyle, washing of feete, and such like,
[II.9.1-128]  not meaning thereby to repute them as Sacraments, in the same sig­
[II.9.1-129]  nification that the two forenamed Sacraments are. And therefore
[II.9:1;130>Saint Augustine weighing the true signification and exact meaning of
[II.9:1;131>the word, writing to , and also in the third booke of Christian
[II.9.1-132]  doctrine
, affirmeth that the Sacraments of the Christians, as they are
[II.9.1-133]  most excellent in signification, so are they most few in number, and in
[II.9.1-134]  both places maketh mention expresly of two, the sacrament of baptisme,
[II.9.1-135]  and the supper of the Lord. And although there are retained by the order
[II.9.1-136]  of the Church of England, besides these two, certaine other Rites and
[II.9.1-137]  Ceremonies about the institution of Ministers in the Church, Matrimo­
[II.9.1-138]  ny, Confirmation of the children, by examining them of their knowledge
[II.9.1-139]  in the articles of the faith, and ioyning thereto the prayers of the Church
[II.9.1-140]  for them, and likewise for the visitation of the sicke: yet no man ought to
[II.9.1-141]  take these for Sacraments, in such signification and meaning, as the
[II.9.1-142]  Sacrament of Baptisme. and the Lords Supper are: but either for
[II.9.1-143]  godly states of life, necessary in Christes Church, and therefore worthie
[II.9.1-144]  to bee set foorth by publike action and solemnity by the ministery of the
[II.9.1-145]  Church, or else iudged to bee such ordinances, as may make for the in­
[II.9.1-146]  struction, comfort, and edification of Christes Church.

[II.9.1-147]  Now vnderstanding sufficiently what prayer is, and what a Sa­
[II.9.1-148]  crament is also, and how many sortes of prayers there bee, and how
[II.9.1-149]  many Sacraments of our Sauiour Christs institution: let vs see whe­
[II.9.1-150]  ther the Scriptures and examples of the Primatiue Church will alow
[II.9.1-151]  any vocall prayer, that is, when the mouth vttereth the petitions with
[II.9.1-152]  voyce, or any maner of Sacrament, or other publike or common rite or
[II.9.1-153]  action, pertaining to the profite and edifying of the vnlearned, to bee
[II.9.1-154]  ministred in a tongue vnknowne, or not vnderstood of the Minister or
[II.9.1-155]  people: yea, and whether any person may priuately vse any vocall prayer,
[II.9.1-156]  in a language that hee himselfe vnderstandeth not. To this question we
[II.9.1-157]  must answere, no. And first of Common prayer and administration of
[II.9.1-158]  Sacraments. Although reason, if it might rule, would soone perswade
[II.9.1-159]  vs to haue our common prayer and administration of the Sacraments
[II.9.1-160]  in a knowne tongue, both for that to pray commonly, is for a multitude
[II.9.1-161]  to aske one and the selfe thing with one voyce, and one consent of minde,
[II.9.1-162]  and to administer a Sacrament, is by the outward word and element,
[II.9.1-163]  to preach to the receiuer the inward and inuisible grace of GOD, and
[II.9.1-164]  also for that both these exercises were first instituted, and are still conti­
[II.9.1-165]  nued to the end that the congregation of Christ might from time to time
[II.9.1-166]  bee put in remembrance of their vnity in Christ, and that as members
[II.9.1-167]  all of one body, they ought both in prayers and otherwise to seeke and
[II.9.1-168]  desire one anothers commodity, & not their owne without others: Yet
[II.9.1-169]  shall wee not neede to flee to reasons and proofes in this matter, sith wee
[II.9.1-170]  haue both the plaine and manifest wordes of the Scripture, and also the
[II.9.1-171]  consent of the most learned and ancient writers, to commend the pray­
[II.9.1-172]  ers of the Congregation in a knowne tongue. First, Paul to the Corin­
[II.9.1-173]  thians saith: Let all things be done to edifying. Which cannot be, vnlesse


[II.9.1-174]  common prayers and administration of Sacraments bee in a tongue
[II.9.1-175]  knowen to the people. For where the prayers spoken by the minister,
[II.9.1-176]  and the wordes in the administration of the Sacraments, bee not vn­
[II.9.1-177]  derstood of them that bee present, they cannot thereby bee edified. For as
[II.9.1-178]  when the trumpet that is blowne in the field giueth an vncertaine sound,
[II.9.1-179]  no man is thereby stirred vp to prepare himselfe to the fight. And as
[II.9.1-180]  when an instrument of musicke maketh no distinct sound, no man can
[II.9.1-181]  tell what is piped: Euen so when prayers or administration of Sacra­
[II.9.1-182]  ments shall bee in a tongue vnknowen to the hearers, which of them
[II.9.1-183]  shall bee thereby stirred vp to lift vp his minde to GOD, and to begge
[II.9.1-184]  with the minister at GODS hand, those things which in the wordes
[II.9.1-185]  of his prayers the minister asketh? Or who shall in the ministration of
[II.9.1-186]  the Sacraments vnderstand what inuisible grace, is to be craued of the
[II.9.1-187]  hearer, to bee wrought in the inward man? Truely no man at all. For
[II.9.1-188]  (saith Saint Paul) hee that speaketh in a tongue vnknowne, shall be
[II.9.1-189]  to the hearer an aliant, which in a Christian Congregation is a great
[II.9.1-190]  absurditie.

[II.9.1-191]  For wee are not strangers one to another, but wee are the citizens of

Ephe 2.
and 12.


[II.9.1-192]  the Saints, and of the houshold of GOD, yea, and members of one
[II.9.1-193]  body. And therefore whiles our minister is in rehearsing the prayer that
[II.9.1-194]  is made in the name of vs all, wee must giue diligent eares to the words
[II.9.1-195]  spoken by him, and in heart begge at GODS hand those things that
[II.9.1-196]  hee beggeth in wordes. And to signifie that wee doe so, wee say Amen,
[II.9.1-197]  at the end of the prayer that hee maketh in the name of vs all. And this
[II.9.1-198]  thing can wee not doe for edification, vnlesse wee vnderstand what is
[II.9.1-199]  spoken. Therefore it is required of necessity, that the Common prayer
[II.9.1-200]  bee had in a tongue that the hearers doe vnderstand. If euer it had bin
[II.9.1-201]  tolerable to vse strange tongues in the congregations, the same might
[II.9.1-202]  haue beene in the time of Paul and the other Apostles, when they were
[II.9.1-203]  miraculously endued with gifts of tongues. For it might then haue per­
[II.9.1-204]  swaded some to imbrace the Gospel, when they had heard men that were
[II.9.1-205]  Hebrewes borne and vnlearned, speake the Greeke, the Latine, and other
[II.9.1-206]  languages. But Paul thought it not tolerable then: And shall wee vse it
[II.9.1-207]  now, when no man commeth by that knowledge of tongues, otherwise
[II.9.1-208]  then by diligent and earnest study? GOD forbid. For wee should by
[II.9.1-209]  that meanes bring all our Church exercises to friuolous superstition, and
[II.9.1-210]  make them altogether vnfruitfull. Luke writeth that when Peter and
[II.9.1-211]  Iohn were discharged by the Princes and high Priestes of Hierusalem,

Actes 4.

[II.9.1-212]  they came to their fellowes, and tolde them all that the Princes of the
[II.9.1-213]  Priestes and Elders had spoken to them. Which when they heard, they
[II.9.1-214]  lifted vp their voyce together to GOD with one assent, and sayd, Lord,
[II.9.1-215]  thou art he that hast made heauen and earth, the sea, and all things that
[II.9.1-216]  are in them. &c. Thus could they not haue done, if they had prayed in a
[II.9.1-217]  strange tongue, that they had not vnderstood. And no doubt of it, they
[II.9.1-218]  did not all speake with seuerall voyce: but some one of them spake in the
[II.9.1-219]  name of them all, and the rest giuing diligent eare to his wordes consen­
[II.9.1-220]  ted thereunto, and therefore it is sayd, that they lifted vp their voyce to­
[II.9.1-221]  gether. Saint Luke saith not, Their voyces, as many: but, their voice,
[II.9.1-222]  as one. That one voyce therefore was in such language as they all vn­
[II.9.1-223]  derstood, otherwise they could not haue lifted it vp with the consent of
[II.9.1-224]  their heartes. For no man canne giue consent of the thing that he know­
[II.9.1-225]  eth not. As touching the times before the comming of Christ there
[II.9.1-226]  was neuer man yet that would affirme, that either the people of GOD
[II.9.1-227]  or other, had their prayers or administrations of the Sacraments, or sa­
[II.9.1-228]  crifices, in a tongue that they themselues vnderstood not. As for the time
[II.9.1-229]  since Christ, till that vsurped power of Rome began to spreade it selfe, and to
[II.9.1-230]  inforce all the nations of Europe to haue the Romish language in admi­
[II.9.1-231]  ration, it appeareth by the consent of the most ancient and learned wri­
[II.9.1-232]  ters, that there was no strange or vnknowne tongue vsed in the congre­
[II.9.1-233]  gation of Christians.

Iustinus a­
pol. 2.


[II.9.1-234]  Iustinus Martyr, who liued about 160 yeeres after Christ, sayth thus
[II.9.1-235]  of the administration of the Lords Supper in his time: Upon the Sun­
[II.9.1-236]  day assemblies are made both of them that dwell in Cities, and of them
[II.9.1-237]  that dwell in the Countrey also. Amongst whom, as much as may bee,
[II.9.1-238]  the writings of the Apostles & Prophets are read. Afterwards when the
[II.9.1-239]  Reader doth cease, the chiefe Minister maketh an exhortation, exhorting
[II.9.1-240]  them to follow honest things. After this, wee rise altogether and offer
[II.9.1-241]  prayers, which being ended (as wee haue sayd) bread and wine and wa­
[II.9.1-242]  ter are brought foorth: Then the head Minister offereth prayers and
[II.9.1-243]  thankesgiuing with all his power, and the people answer, Amen. These
[II.9.1-244]  words, with their circumstances being duely considered, do declare plain­
[II.9.1-245]  ly, that not onely the Scriptures were read in a knowne tongue: but al­
[II.9.1-246]  so that prayer was made in the same in the congregations of Iustines time.
[II.9.1-247]  Basilius Magnus, and Iohannes Chrysostomus did in their time prescribe pub­
[II.9.1-248]  like orders of publike administration, which they call Liturgies, and in
[II.9.1-249]  them they appointed the people to answer to the prayers of the Minister,
[II.9.1-250]  sometime, Amen, sometime, Lord haue mercy vpon vs, sometime, and with
[II.9.1-251]  thy spirit, and we haue our hearts lifted vp vnto the Lord, &c. Which answers


[II.9.1-252]  the people could not haue made in due time, if the prayers had not beene
[II.9.1-253]  in a tongue that they vnderstood. The same Basil writing to the Clergie
[II.9.1-254]  of Neoc'sarea, sayth thus of his vsage in common prayer, appoynting
[II.9.1-255]  one to begin the song, the rest follow: And so with diuers songs and pray­
[II.9.1-256]  ers, passing ouer the night, at the dawning of the day, altogether (euen
[II.9.1-257]  as it were with one mouth and one heart) they sing vnto the Lord a song
[II.9.1-258]  of confession, euery man framing vnto himselfe meete wordes of repen­
[II.9.1-259]  tance. In another place he sayth, If the Sea bee fayre, how is not the
[II.9.1-260]  assembly of the congregation much more fayre, in which a ioyned sound
[II.9.1-261]  of men, women, and children (as it were of the waues beating on the


[II.9.1-262]  shore) is sent foorth in our prayers vnto our GOD? Marke his words:


A ioyned sound (sayth he) of men, women, and children. Which cannot
be, vnlesse they all vnderstand the tongue wherein the prayer is sayd. And


[II.9.1-263]  Chrysostome vpon the words of Paul sayth, So soone as the people heare
[II.9.1-264]  these words, world without end, they all doe foorthwith answer, Amen.
[II.9.1-265]  This could they not doe, vnlesse they vnderstood the word spoken by the
[II.9.1-266]  Priest. Dionysius sayth, that hymnes were sayd of the whole multitude


[II.9.1-267]  of people in the administration of the Communion. Cyprian sayth, The

6.de ora.do.­


[II.9.1-268]  Priest doth prepare the mindes of the brethren, with a preface before the
[II.9.1-269]  prayer, saying, Lift vp your hearts: That whiles the people doth answer,
[II.9.1-270]  We haue our hearts lifted vp to the Lord, they be admonished that they ought
[II.9.1-271]  to thinke on none other thing then the Lord. Saint Ambrose writing
[II.9.1-272]  vpon the words of Saint Paul sayth, This is it that hee sayth, because


[II.9.1-273]  hee which speaketh in an vnknowne tongue, speaketh to GOD, for hee
[II.9.1-274]  knoweth all things: but men know not, and therefore there is no profit
[II.9.1-275]  of this thing. And againe vpon these wordes: If thou blesse, or giue
[II.9.1-276]  thankes with the spirit, how shall hee that occupieth the roome of the vn­
[II.9.1-277]  learned, say Amen, at thy giuing of thankes, seeing hee vnderstandeth
[II.9.1-278]  not what thou sayest? This is (sayth Ambrose) if thou speake the prayse
[II.9.1-279]  of GOD in a tongue vnknowen to the hearers. For the vnlearned
[II.9.1-280]  hearing that which he vnderstandeth not, knoweth not the end of the
[II.9.1-281]  prayer, and answereth not Amen: which word is as much to say, as
[II.9.1-282]  trueth, that the blessing or thankesgiuing may bee confirmed. For the
[II.9.1-283]  confirmation of the prayer is fulfilled by them that doe answere, Amen,
[II.9.1-284]  that all things spoken might be confirmed in the mindes of the hearers,
[II.9.1-285]  through the testimony of the truth. And after many weighty wordes, to
[II.9.1-286]  the same end he sayth: The conclusion is this, that nothing should bee
[II.9.1-287]  done in the Church in vaine, and that this thing ought chiefly to bee la­
[II.9.1-288]  boured for, that the vnlearned also might take profit, lest any part of the
[II.9.1-289]  body should be darke through ignorance. And lest any man should thinke
[II.9.1-290]  all this to be meant of preaching, and not of prayer, he taketh occasion of
[II.9.1-291]  these words of Saint Paul (If there be not an interpreter, let him keepe si­
[II.9.1-292]  lence in the Church) to say, as followeth: Let him pray secretly, or speake
[II.9.1-293]  to GOD, who heareth all things that be dumbe: For in the Church must
[II.9.1-294]  he speake that may profit all persons. Saint Hierome writing vpon these
[II.9.1-295]  words of Saint Paul, How shall hee that supplieth the place of the vnlearned,


[II.9.1-296]  &c., sayth, It is the Lay man whom Paul vnderstandeth heere to bee in
[II.9.1-297]  the place of the ignorant man, which hath no Ecclesiasticall office. How
[II.9.1-298]  shall he answer, Amen, to the prayer of that he vnderstandeth not? And a little
[II.9.1-299]  after, vpon the words of Saint Paul, For if I should pray in a tongue &c.
[II.9.1-300]  he sayth thus: Thus is Pauls meaning: If any man speake in strange and
[II.9.1-301]  vnknowen tongues, his minde is made vnfruitfull, not to himselfe, but
[II.9.1-302]  to the hearer: For whatsoeuer is spoken, hee knoweth it not. Saint Au­


[II.9.1-303]  gustine writing vpon the xviii. Psalme, sayth: What this should bee wee
[II.9.1-304]  ought to vnderstand, that we may sing with reason of man, and not with
[II.9.1-305]  chattering of birds. For Owles, Popingayes, Rauens, Pyes, and o­
[II.9.1-306]  ther such like birds, are taught by men to prate they know not what: but
[II.9.1-307]  to sing with vnderstanding, is giuen by GODS holy will to the nature
[II.9.1-308]  of man. Againe, the same Augustine sayth, There needeth no speech

De magist.

[II.9.1-309]  when we pray, sauing perhaps as the Priests doe, for to declare their
[II.9.1-310]  meaning, not that GOD, but that men may heare them. And so being
[II.9.1-311]  put in remembrance by consenting with the Priest, they may hang vpon
[II.9.1-312]  GOD.

[II.9.1-313]  Thus are we taught by the Scripture and ancient Doctours,
[II.9.1-314]  that in the administration of Common prayer and Sacraments, no
[II.9.1-315]  tongue vnknowne to the hearers ought to be vsed. So that for the satis­
[II.9.1-316]  fying of a Christian mans conscience wee need to spend no more time in
[II.9.1-317]  this matter. But yet to stop the mouthes of the aduersaries, which stay
[II.9.1-318]  themselues much vpon generall decrees, it shall bee good to adde to these
[II.9.1-319]  testimonies of Scriptures and Doctours, one Constitution made by
[II.9.1-320]  Iustinian the Emperour, who liued fiue hundred twenty and seuen yeeres


[II.9.1-321]  after Christ, and was Emperour of Rome. The Constitution is this:
[II.9.1-322]  We command that all Bishops and Priests doe celebrate the holy oblation
[II.9.1-323]  and the prayers vsed in holy Baptisme, not speaking low, but with a
[II.9.1-324]  cleare or loud voyce, which may be heard of the people, that thereby the
[II.9.1-325]  minde of the hearers may be stirred vp with great deuotion, in vttering
[II.9.1-326]  the prayers of the Lord GOD, for so the holy Apostle teacheth in his
[II.9.1-327]  first Epistle to the Corinthians, saying, Truely, if thou onely blesse or
[II.9.1-328]  giue thankes in spirit, how doeth hee that occupieth the place of the vn­
[II.9.1-329]  learned, say Amen at that thy giuing thankes vnto GOD, for he vnder­
[II.9.1-330]  standeth not what thou sayest? Thou verely giuest thankes well, but the
[II.9.1-331]  other is not edified. And againe in the Epistle to the Romanes, he saith:
[II.9.1-332]  With the heart a man beleeueth vnto righteousnesse, and with the mouth
[II.9.1-333]  confession is made vnto saluation. Therefore for these causes it is con­
[II.9.1-334]  uenient that among other prayers, those things also which are spoken in
[II.9.1-335]  the holy oblation, be vttered and spoken of the most religious Bishops &
[II.9.1-336]  priestes, vnto our Lord Iesus Christ our GOD, with the Father and
[II.9.1-337]  the holy Ghost, with a loud voyce. And let the most religious Priestes
[II.9.1-338]  know this, that if they neglect any of these things, that they shall giue
[II.9.1-339]  an account for them in the dreadfull iudgement of the great GOD and
[II.9.1-340]  our Sauiour Iesus Christ. Neither will wee, when we know it, rest
[II.9.1-341]  and leaue it vnreuenged.

[II.9.1-342]  This Emperour (as Sabellicus writeth) fauoured the Bishop of
[II.9.1-343]  Rome, and yet wee see how plaine a decree hee maketh, for praying and
[II.9.1-344]  administring of Sacraments in a knowne tongue, that the deuotion
[II.9.1-345]  of the hearers might be stirred vp by knowledge, contrary to the iudge­
[II.9.1-346]  ment of them that would haue ignorance to make deuotion. Hee maketh
[II.9.1-347]  it also a matter of damnation, to doe these things in a tongue that the
[II.9.1-348]  hearers vnderstand not. Let vs therefore conclude with GOD and all
[II.9.1-349]  good mens assent, that no common prayer or Sacraments ought to bee
[II.9.1-350]  ministred in a tongue that is not vnderstood of the hearers. Now a word
[II.9.1-351]  or two of priuate prayer in an vnknowne tongue. Wee tooke in hand
[II.9.1-352]  where we beganne to speake of this matter, not onely to prooue that no
[II.9.1-353]  common prayer or administration of Sacraments, ought to bee in a
[II.9.1-354]  tongue vnknowne to the hearers: but also, that no person ought to pray
[II.9.1-355]  priuately in that tongue that he himselfe vnderstandeth not. Which thing
[II.9.1-356]  shall not be heard to prooue, if we forget not what prayer is. For if prayer
[II.9.1-357]  be that deuotion of the minde which enforceth &the; heart to lift vp it selfe to
[II.9.1-358]  GOD: how should it be said, that that person prayeth, that vnderstandeth
[II.9.1-359]  not the words that his tongue speaketh in prayer? Yea, how can it be said
[II.9.1-360]  that he speaketh? For to speake is by voice to vtter &the; thought of the mind.
[II.9.1-361]  And the voyce that a man vttereth in speaking, is nothing els but the
[II.9.1-362]  messenger of the minde, to bring abroad the knowledge of that which
[II.9.1-363]  otherwise lyeth secret in the heart, and cannot be knowen according to
[II.9.1-364]  that which Saint Paul writeth: What man (sayth hee) knoweth the


[II.9.1-365]  things that appertaine to man, sauing onely the spirite of man, which
[II.9.1-366]  is in man? Hee therefore that doeth not vnderstand the voyces that his
[II.9.1-367]  tongue doeth vtter, cannot properly be sayd to speake, but rather to coun­
[II.9.1-368]  terfait, as Parattes, and such other birdes vse to counterfait mens voy­
[II.9.1-369]  ces. No man therefore that feareth to prouoke the wrath of GOD
[II.9.1-370]  gainst himselfe, will bee so bolde to speake of GOD vnaduisedly, with­
[II.9.1-371]  out regard of reuerent vnderstanding, in his presence, but he will pre­
[II.9.1-372]  pare his heart before he presume to speake vnto GOD. And therefore in
[II.9.1-373]  our common prayer the minister doeth often times say, Let vs pray, mea­
[II.9.1-374]  ning thereby to admonish the people that they should prepare their eares
[II.9.1-375]  to heare, what he should craue at GODS hand, and their hearts to
[II.9.1-376]  consent to the same, and their tongues to say, Amen, at the ende thereof.
[II.9.1-377]  On this sort did the Prophet Dauid prepare his heart, when he said, My


[II.9.1-378]  heart is ready (O GOD) my heart is ready, I will sing and declare a
[II.9.1-379]  Psalme. The Iewes also, when in the time of Iudith they did with all
[II.9.1-380]  their heart pray GOD to visite his people of Israel had so prepared their
[II.9.1-381]  hearts before they began to pray. After this sort had Manasses prepared
[II.9.1-382]  his heart before he prayed, and said, And now (O Lord) doe I bow the


[II.9.1-383]  knees of my heart, asking of thee part of thy mercifull kindnes. When the
[II.9.1-384]  heart is thus prepared, the voyce vttered from the heart, is harmonious
[II.9.1-385]  in the eares of GOD: otherwise he regardeth it not, to accept it. But
[II.9.1-386]  forasmuch as the person that so babbleth his words without sense in the
[II.9.1-387]  presence of GOD sheweth himselfe not to regard the maiestie of him that
[II.9.1-388]  he speaketh to: He taketh him as a contemner of his Almighty maiestie,
[II.9.1-389]  and giueth him his reward among hypocrites, which make an outward
[II.9.1-390]  shew of holinesse, but their hearts are full of abominable thoughts,
[II.9.1-391]  euen in the time of their prayers. For it is the heart that the Lord loo­


[II.9.1-392]  keth vpon, as it is written in the historie of Kings. If wee therefore
[II.9.1-393]  will that our prayers bee not abominable before GOD, let vs so
[II.9.1-394]  prepare our hearts before wee pray, and so vnderstand the things that
[II.9.1-395]  wee aske when wee pray, that both our hearts and voyces may to­
[II.9.1-396]  gether sound in the eares of GODS maiestie, and then we shall not
[II.9.1-397]  faile to receiue at his hand the things that we aske, as good men which
[II.9.1-398]  haue beene before vs did, and so haue from time to time receiued that
[II.9.1-399]  which for their soules health they did at any time desire. S. Augustine

De catechi­
zandis ru­


[II.9.1-400]  seemeth to beare in this matter: For he saith thus of them, which being
[II.9.1-401]  brought vp in Grammar and Rhetoricke, are conuerted to Christ, and so
[II.9.1-402]  must be instructed in Christian religion: Let them know also (saith hee)
[II.9.1-403]  that it is not the voyce, but the affection of the minde that commeth to the
[II.9.1-404]  eares of God. And so shall it come to passe, that if happily they shall marke
[II.9.1-405]  that some Bishops or ministers in the Church do call vpon GOD, either
[II.9.1-406]  with barbarous wordes, or with wordes disordered, or that they vnder­
[II.9.1-407]  stand not, or doe disorderly diuide the wordes that they pronounce, they
[II.9.1-408]  shall not laugh them to scorne. Hitherto he seemeth to heare with pray­
[II.9.1-409]  ing in an vnknowen tongue. But in the next sentence hee openeth his
[II.9.1-410]  minde thus: Not for that these things ought not to be amended, that the
[II.9.1-411]  people may say Amen, to that which they doe plainely vnderstand: But
[II.9.1-412]  yet these godly things must bee borne withall of these Catechistes or in­
[II.9.1-413]  structors of the fayth, that they may learne, that as in the common place
[II.9.1-414]  where matters are pleaded, the goodnes of an oration consisteth in sound:
[II.9.1-415]  so in the Church it consisteth in deuotion. So that hee alloweth not the
[II.9.1-416]  praying in a tongue not vnderstood of him that prayeth: But hee instru­
[II.9.1-417]  cteth the skilfull Oratour, to beare with the rude tongue of the deuout
[II.9.1-418]  simple Minister. To conclude, if the lacke of vnderstanding the words
[II.9.1-419]  that are spoken in the Congregation, doe make them vnfruitfull to the
[II.9.1-420]  hearers: how should not the same make the words read , vnfruitfull to
[II.9.1-421]  the Reader? The mercifull goodnesse of GOD, grant vs his grace to
[II.9.1-422]  call vpon him as we ought to doe, to his glory and our endlesse felicity,
[II.9.1-423]  which we shall doe, if we humble our selues in his sight, and in all our


[II.9.1-424]  prayers both common and priuate, haue our mindes fully fixed vpon
[II.9.1-425]  him. For the prayer of them that humble themselues, shall pearce
[II.9.1-426]  through the clouds, and till it draw nigh vnto GOD, it will
[II.9.1-427]  not be answered, and till the most High doe regard it, it
[II.9.1-428]  will not depart. And the Lord will not be slack,
[II.9.1-429]  but hee will deliuer the iust, and execute
[II.9.1-430]  iudgement. To him therefore be
[II.9.1-431]  all honour and glory, for
[II.9.1-432]  euer and euer,
[II.9.1-433]  Amen.