|On this Page:||Munich, 1992||Munich '92, Environment||Munich '92, Development|
|Tokyo, 1993||Tokyo '93, Environment||Tokyo '93, Development|
|Naples, 1994||Naples '94, Environment||Naples '94, Development|
With respect to environmental issues, the Munich communique stated that:
Rapid and concrete action is required to follow through on our commitments on climate change, to protect forests and oceans, to preserve marine resources, and to maintain biodiversity. We therefore urge all countries, developed and developing, to direct their policies and resources towards sustainable development which safeguards the interests of both present and future generations.
To carry forward the momentum of the Rio Conference, we urge other countries to join us:
At Munich, the leaders made the following commitments with respect to developing countries:
We will continue our best efforts to increase the quantity and quality of official development assistance in accordance with our commitments. We shall direct official development assistance more towards the poorest countries. Poverty, population policy, education, health, the role of women and the well-being of children merit particular attention. We shall support in particular those countries that undertake credible efforts to help themselves.
Negotiations on a substantial replenishment of IDA funds should be concluded before the end of 1992. The IMF should continue to provide concessional financing to support the reform programmes for the poorest countries. We call for an early decision by the IMF on the extension for one year of the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) and for the full examination of options for the subsequent period, including a renewal of the facility.
We confirm the validity of the international debt strategy. We welcome the enhanced debt relief extended to the poorest countries by the Paris Club. We attach great importance to the enhanced use of voluntary debt conversions, including debt conversions for environmental protection.
The environmental portion of the Tokyo communique stated:
We welcome the successful first meeting of the Commission on Sustainable Development and the progress made towards implementation and ratification of the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity by the end of 1993, and on negotiation of a convention on desertification.
We renew our determination to secure environmentally sustainable development through an effective follow-up of the fruits of the UNCED, including the commitment to publish national action plans by the end of this year.
We will work to ensure that the Global Environment Facility (GEF), with its necessary improvements, functions as the financial mechanism to provide funding for the incremental costs of implementing the global environment conventions signed on at Rio.
We encourage the multilateral development banks to focus more intensively on sustainable development, to incorporate environmental appraisals into project preparation and to make them publicly available.
We look forward to a successful outcome of the UN Conference on straddling and highly migratory fish stocks. We shall continue to seek appropriate internationally agreed arrangements on the management, conservation and sustainable development of forests. We welcome the analysis being done by the OECD/IEA on the contribution of environment and energy technologies in meeting global environment concerns.
The Tokyo communique made the following commitments with respect to developing countries:
We will continue to strengthen our support for their (developing countries) self-help efforts based on the principles of good governance. We will also encourage them to follow sound and open economic policies to create a solid base for sustainable economic growth.
To this end, we will pursue a comprehensive approach, covering not only aid but also trade, investment and debt strategy, and a differentiated approach, tailored to the needs and performances of each country at its particular stage of development and taking environmental aspects into account. Under such an approach, we will make all efforts to enhance development assistance in order to respond to ongoing needs as well as new requirements.
The poorest countries deserve special attention. Accordingly, we support the succession to or the renewal of the IMF's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility. We also look forward to a successful outcome of the International Conference on African Development in October this year.
We confirm the validity of the international debt strategy and invite the Paris Club to continue reviewing the question of debt relief for the poorest highly- indebted countries, especially with regard to earlier reductions in the stock of debt on a case by case basis. We welcome the U.S. administration's decision to join us in debt reduction for these countries.
With regards to the environment, the Naples declaration stated:
Environment is a top priority for international cooperation. Environmental policies can contribute to enhancing growth, employment and living standards, for example, through investments in appropriate technologies, energy efficiency improvements and cleaning-up polluted areas.
We urge the multilateral development banks to continue making progress in promoting local participation and incorporating environmental considerations into their programs.
We support the work of the Commission on Sustainable Development in reviewing progress in the implementation of the Rio process. We look forward to the implementation of the Conventions already concluded, in particular those on biological diversity and climate change and in this respect we will work for the success of the forthcoming Conferences on these subjects in Nassau and Berlin.
We welcome the restructuring and the replenishment of the Global Environment Facility and we support its choice as the permanent financial mechanism of these two Conventions. We welcome the recent conclusion of the Convention on Desertification and the results of the Conference on Small Islands, which add to the framework agreed in Rio.
We are determined to speed up the implementation of our national plans called for under the Rio Climate Treaty and we will each report what we have achieved at next year's Summit. We also recognize the need to develop steps for the post-2000 period.
The leaders in Naples made the following commitments with respect to developing countries:
We are committed to continue our efforts to enhance development assistance as well as promoting trade and investment in developing countries.
We also call on the World Bank as well as the regional development banks to strengthen their efforts to reinforce private capital flows to the developing world while providing growing resources for health, education, family policies and environmental protection.
We encourage the Paris Club to pursue its efforts to improve the debt treatment of the poorest and most indebted countries. Where appropriate, we favour a reduction in the stock of debt and an increase in concessionality for those countries facing special difficulties.
We welcome the renewal of the ESAF and the measures under consideration by the IMF to increase support to developing countries and to ensure that all members take part in the SDR system. In addition, we agree to explore ways to mobilize more effectively the existing resources of the International Financial Institutions to respond to the special needs of countries emerging from economic and political disruption and the poorest most indebted countries.
In the Middle East, economic development is essential to underpin the peace process. Thus, along with others, we are providing financial and technical assistance to the Palestinian Authority and we are working to promote cooperation and development in the region. We call for an end to the Arab boycott of Israel.
We warmly welcome South Africa's transition to full democracy. This will open up new opportunities for trade and inward investment. We will provide further assistance to help strengthen economic and social development, in particular for the poorest groups. Not only the people of South Africa but also her regional neighbours have much to gain from steady economic policies that unlock her full potential.
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