G7 Statement on Non-proliferation and Disarmament
Hiroshima, April 11, 2016
Since we, G7 members, met in Lübeck in April 2015, the international community has faced a number of serious challenges, regionally and globally, in the field of non-proliferation and disarmament such as North Korea's recent nuclear test and launch using ballistic missile technology; credible reports of chemical weapons use in Syria; increasing and credible allegations of chemical weapons use by ISIL/Da'esh in Syria and Iraq; and the proliferation of conventional arms to terrorists. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) between the E3/EU+3 and Iran has successfully reached the phase of implementation, but the 2015 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) was not able to reach consensus on the substantive part of the draft Final Document.
Against this background, as explicitly expressed in the G7 Foreign Ministers' Hiroshima Declaration, we are committed to seeking a safer world for all and to taking practical and concrete steps, enumerated as below, in the fields of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, nuclear security and safety, peaceful uses of nuclear energy, non-proliferation of other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), control of small arms and light weapons, and outer space.
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Nuclear Disarmament and Non-Proliferation
- In conjunction with the G7 Foreign Ministers' Hiroshima Declaration, we reaffirm our unconditional support for all three mutually reinforcing pillars of NPT, which remains the cornerstone of the nuclear non-proliferation regime and the essential foundation for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament in accordance with Article VI and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in accordance with Article IV, and we underline the need for a strong NPT and full commitment by all NPT members to implement the Treaty in good faith. We urge States that have not yet done so to become parties to the NPT without delay and without conditions.
- We acknowledge the right of withdrawal contained in Article X of the NPT.This notwithstanding, we encourage NPT States Parties to reaffirm the importance of preventing the abuse of the NPT withdrawal provision, and recognize that the withdrawal of a State from the NPT erodes the Treaty's near universality and thereby damages the security of all other NPT States Parties.
- >We stress the critical importance of continuing to move forward during the review cycle leading up to the 2020 NPT Review Conference, with steady progress to implement the 2010 NPT Review Conference Action Plan. In this regard, we welcome the role that members of the Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI) have played to bridge divisions among NPT States Parties and note the recommendation for reporting templates submitted by the NPDI. We call upon all States Parties to report on their pertinent activities to the NPT community, consistent with the 2010 NPT Action Plan.
- We reaffirm that the early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) constitutes a key priority and, on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of its opening for signature, urge all States to sign and ratify the CTBT without delay and without conditions. Pending its entry into force all States should maintain all existing voluntary moratoria on nuclear weapon test explosions or any other nuclear explosion and refrain from acts that would defeat the object and purpose of the CTBT.
- We commend the work undertaken by the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), including the establishment of a comprehensive verification regime, and in particular the International Monitoring System (IMS) and International Data Centre (IDC), which have proven their effectiveness by providing substantive and reliable data on nuclear tests by North Korea, such as the one conducted on January 6 this year in flagrant violation of its international obligations. We encourage further development of the IMS and the IDC, and commit, in accordance with applicable laws and regulations, to providing strong political support and adequate resources to complete the Treaty's verification regime.
- We appreciate the work of Japan and Kazakhstan, as the current Co-Coordinators of the Article XIV Process to Facilitate the Entry into Force of the CTBT, to promote further ratifications and the Treaty's entry into force.
- We call upon Annex II States that have not yet signed and/or ratified the Treaty, as a next possible step, if they have not already done so, to engage in order to develop the IMS as fully as possible. At the same time, we welcome the support for the IMS by the G7, which has contributed more than US$ 100 million in voluntary contributions to CTBT-related projects over the past five years.
- We welcome renewed efforts, and we encourage all Member States of the Conference on Disarmament (CD) to exert their utmost efforts to break the impasse at the CD through the early adoption of a program of work that prioritizes the immediate commencement of negotiations of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT), based on the consensus report issued by the Canadian-initiated Group of Governmental Experts and taking into consideration France's proposal for a draft FMCT in 2015.
- We urge all States to declare and maintain moratoria on the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices pending the entry into force of an FMCT.
- We attach great importance to the faithful implementation of existing disarmament and arms control treaties. We welcome the fifth anniversary of the entry into force of the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) between the United States and the Russian Federation, and we appreciate that the offer proposed by U.S. President Obama in June 2013 to the Russian Federation for a new round of disarmament negotiations remains valid when circumstances are conducive to such negotiations. We also welcome the disarmament-related actions already taken by France and the United Kingdom, including the 2015 reduction by the U.K. of the number of operationally available warheads to no more than 120, and additional transparency measures by France regarding its nuclear arsenal. We call upon other states to join such efforts.
- We emphasize that the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, a landmark arms-control agreement that eliminated an entire class of weapons, is an important element of the European security architecture and broader international security and stability including in Asia, as well as a contribution by the United States, the Russian Federation and other States Parties to the fulfilment of their obligation under Article VI of the NPT. In this context, we call upon the Russian Federation to preserve the viability of the INF Treaty by ensuring full and verifiable compliance.
- We welcome the continuation of the P5's work together to build mutual trust and transparency, essential for further progress on nuclear disarmament. In that context, we note the submission of the reports provided at the 2015 NPT Review Conference by the five nuclear-weapon States in accordance with the 2010 NPT Review Conference Action Plan.
- We attach great importance to bringing about the entry into force of relevant legally binding protocols of nuclear-weapon-free zone treaties, which would enhance regional and international security by helping to build confidence between nuclear-weapon States and non-nuclear-weapon States.
- We welcome the signature and/or ratification by the five nuclear-weapon States of the Protocol to the Treaty on the Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia and the commitment of the five nuclear-weapon States to continue consultations with the States Parties to the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone, in order to work toward signature of the Protocol as soon as possible, and call for renewed regional dialogue to achieve the goal of a zone free of nuclear weapons, as well as other WMDs and their means of delivery, in the Middle East.
- We strongly support practical and concrete initiatives which encourage cooperation between nuclear-weapon States and non-nuclear-weapon States to help address the complex challenges involved in the verification of nuclear disarmament such as the UK/Norway Initiative and the International Partnership for Nuclear Disarmament Verification.
- We hope that the newly formed Open-Ended Working Group on nuclear disarmament will engage in a balanced, constructive dialogue on diverse approaches since only such a dialogue can lead to consensus results that would help promote future cooperation between nuclear-weapon States and non-nuclear-weapon States.
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- We condemn in the strongest terms the nuclear test on January 6 and the launch using ballistic missile technology on February 7, March 10 and March 18 conducted by North Korea. It is profoundly deplorable that North Korea has conducted four nuclear tests in the 21st century. We urge North Korea not to conduct any further nuclear tests or launches that use ballistic missile technology, nor to engage in any other destabilizing or provocative actions. We renew our strong demand for North Korea to immediately and fully implement the relevant UN Security Council resolutions as well as the Joint Statement of the Six Party Talks of September 2005, and abandon all nuclear weapons and existing nuclear and ballistic missile programs in a complete, verifiable and irreversible manner, and to return at an early date to the NPT and to International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) safeguards.
- We strongly condemn North Korea's ongoing nuclear activities including the restart and operation of the 5MW(e) graphite-moderated reactor and the extension and operation of the uranium enrichment facility at Yongbyon, and we urge North Korea to halt all such activities. We reiterate the international community's firm opposition to North Korea's possession of nuclear weapons and urge it to cease all nuclear activities immediately, in accordance with the goal of the verifiable denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. We reaffirm our shared objective to achieve a diplomatic resolution to North Korea's nuclear and missile issues. We welcome the unanimous adoption of United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 2270 on March 2, and call on all States to intensify efforts to address the threat posed by DPRK's nuclear and missile programs, including through the full implementation of all relevant UN Security Council resolutions.
- We express grave concern over the findings of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Fact-Finding Mission (FFM) that chemical weapons continued to be used throughout 2015 in Syria, and we stress the importance of identifying, holding those responsible accountable, and fully verifying that the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) declaration and related submissions of Syria are accurate and complete. We underscore our determination to continue our support to the FFM, the OPCW-UN Joint Investigative Mechanism (JIM) and the OPCW's Declaration Assessment Team (DAT), and we urge once again the Syrian Arab Republic to fulfil its obligations under the CWC and UNSCR 2118 (2013), 2209 (2015) and 2235 (2015).
- We note with concern the current security situation in Libya and stress that it is essential that the remaining chemical weapons precursors in Libya be urgently destroyed.
- We laud the historic achievement of the JCPOA between the E3/EU+3 and Iran to ensure the Iranian nuclear program is and remains exclusively peaceful. The agreement must be fully and rigorously implemented. We pledge to do our utmost to ensure that all necessary resources, including financial ones, are made available to the IAEA, which assumes the critical responsibility in monitoring and verification to confirm that Iran is meeting its JCPOA commitments. G7 has voluntarily provided the IAEA more than 5 million US dollars for that purpose and we encourage other states to do the same.
- Recalling UNSCR 2231, we call upon Iran not to undertake any activity related to ballistic missiles designed to be capable of delivering nuclear weapons, including launches using such ballistic missile technology.
- We stress the central role of the IAEA and its safeguards system in the nuclear non-proliferation regime. We continue to promote the universal acceptance of an IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol (AP) as the international verification standard. We call upon all States who have not yet done so to sign and bring into force an AP and, where relevant, adopt the modified Small Quantities Protocol. We underscore the importance of the application of IAEA safeguards for peaceful nuclear activities particularly the nuclear fuel cycle, consistent with each state's international obligations.
- We express grave concern that, despite the IAEA Board of Governors resolution of 9 June 2011, which reported Syria's non-compliance with its Safeguards Agreement to the Security Council and General Assembly of the United Nations, Syria still has to remedy urgently this non-compliance.
- We support the continuing evolution of IAEA safeguards at the state level and emphasize the importance of maintaining the credibility, effectiveness and integrity of the IAEA safeguards system.
- We support the IAEA's efforts to modernize its safeguards information technology infrastructure by improving tools and applications available to strengthen information security of the safeguards network.
- We continue to strengthen our efforts to reduce global proliferation threats through international export control regimes (the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Missile Technology Control Regime, and Australia Group) and the Zangger Committee and we call upon all States to enhance the implementation of their national export controls. States in a position to do so are encouraged, where applicable and necessary, to provide capacity-building assistance in this regard.
- We call upon all States participating in the three aforementioned regimes to act consistently with their Guidelines, encourage all States outside of the regimes to adhere to their Guidelines, and urge all States to exercise vigilance to ensure the supply of items and technology covered by the regimes do not contribute to programs of proliferation concern.
- We support further discussions within the NSG towards the establishment of the IAEA Additional Protocol as a condition of supply in the Group's Guidelines.
- We remain committed to the universalization of the Hague Code of Conduct Against Ballistic Missile Proliferation and to promoting appropriate transparency measures on ballistic missile and space launch programs, as the proliferation of missiles, especially those capable of delivering WMD, poses a threat to international peace and security.
- We reaffirm our unwavering commitment to the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction (GP), which continues to address WMD proliferation threats that exist worldwide, and its funding programs and coordinating activities to combat chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) terrorism. We also recognize that GP programs and activities to combat WMD terrorism are directly relevant to those other fora including the Nuclear Security Summit, BWC Review Conference, and UNSCR 1540 Comprehensive Review this year. In this regard, we welcome that the GP has continuously expanded beyond the G7 and currently includes 30 active members with the recent addition of Georgia, and also welcome the contribution of GP members to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund for the years 2014-2015 which has amounted to more than 47 million Euros.
- 32.We remain committed to achieving a world safe and secure from biological threats. In this regard, we must be prepared to cooperate among relevant organizations and initiatives to counter potential deliberate biological security threats. We welcome initiatives to strengthen health systems to address naturally occurring and accidental outbreaks, by building measureable and suitable capacity to prevent, detect and rapidly respond to biological threats, including through the GP and the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) as well as support for implementing the World Health Organization's International Health Regulations. In this regard, we have offered collectively to assist over 70 countries in the next five years, encouraging others to join in this collective effort.
- We strongly support the 2nd Comprehensive Review of UNSCR 1540, a resolution that continues to provide an opportunity to strengthen further the efficiency of our efforts to combat proliferation of WMDs and their means of delivery and their potential acquisition by non-state actors, with a view to assessing implementation of the resolution and to improving the assistance process to promote full implementation as soon as possible. We call upon States that have not yet submitted their first national report to the 1540 Committee to do so as soon as possible.
- We call for additional outreach to industry and other stakeholders to raise awareness and help establish a culture of responsibility in an effort to protect sensitive technologies and know-how against all forms of intangible technology transfer by proliferators, as has already been successfully initiated within the framework of the Wiesbaden process.
- We continue to support the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), which has played an important role in countering WMD proliferation to and from States and non-state actors of proliferation concern, encouraging efforts to strengthen and expand the PSI, including through broadening global support for the 2003 Statement of Interdiction Principles. We call for further effective implementation of the four Joint Statement items and other national declarations at the 2013 High Level Political Meeting, as well as capitalizing on the success of the first Mid-Level Political Meeting, held in 2016, which encouraged the 105 PSI endorsing states to employ PSI's unique proactive and voluntary nature to build capacities and seek new adherents to meet the emerging WMD proliferation challenges for the future.
- We reaffirm our support for the CWC and the work of the OPCW and continue our efforts to achieve universalization and effective implementation of the CWC. We note with grave concern the allegations of manufacture and use of chemical weapons by ISIL/Da'esh, and express our commitment to working with and through the OPCW and other relevant venues to mitigate the serious threat to international security posed by terrorist use of chemical weapons.
- We strongly support the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention as a cornerstone of the international legal regime banning biological weapons and call on all states that are not yet Parties to the Convention to join without delay, and affirm our commitment to strengthening the Convention at the Eighth Review Conference in 2016 in areas including implementation, compliance, science and technology, and preparedness and response to outbreaks of disease, both at the Review Conference and through intersessional work.
- Building on the lessons learned from 2013 in Syria (the Sellström mission), we welcome and commend the continued effort of UNODA, with support from UN member States, to strengthen the United Nations Secretary-General's Mechanism for Investigation of Alleged Use of Chemical, Biological and Toxin Weapons (SGM) notably through the organization of training courses and exercises of Sweden, the United Kingdom, Germany and France.
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Nuclear Security and Safety
- We welcome all international initiatives to prevent nuclear terrorism. We will continue to support and advocate for strengthening and sustaining further the security of nuclear and other radioactive material.
- We applaud the success of the fourth Nuclear Security Summit hosted by U.S. President Obama on March 31-April 1, 2016 and, building upon the outcomes of the Nuclear Security Summit process, commit ourselves to further strengthening and coordinating international cooperation on nuclear security, through the United Nations, IAEA, INTERPOL, GICNT and GP Action Plans.
- We reaffirm the central role of the IAEA in the global nuclear security architecture, and strongly support the December 2016 IAEA International Conference on Nuclear Security including its Ministerial segment in maintaining high level attention and commitment to strengthening nuclear security. We call for high level participation in this Conference.
- We recognize the important contribution made by the IAEA International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) and International Nuclear Security Advisory Service (INSServ) missions to strengthening nuclear security, and we support the UK-funded International Review Conference marking twenty years of IPPAS missions, to be held in November 2016, as it will provide an opportunity for IAEA Member States to share experience and best practice.
- We continue to support and participate in the IAEA's efforts to develop cybersecurity measures to protect sensitive nuclear information, technologies and facilities.
- We urge all States to become party to the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (ICSANT) and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), as amended in 2005, in order to bring the 2005 Amendment of the CPPNM into force in the course of the year.
- We support practical and concrete initiatives such as the CBRN Risk Mitigation Centres of Excellence Initiative of the Instrument contributing to Stability and Peace, which permits the EU, together with regional partners, to strengthen CBRN safety and security and thus mitigate CBRN risks in eight regions of the world.
- We welcome the steady progress on decommissioning and contaminated water management at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station over the past five years. We reaffirm the importance of achieving and maintaining high levels of nuclear safety worldwide. We recognize the achievements that the international community has made on nuclear safety since the Fukushima Daiichi accident and IAEA's role in this regard including the implementation of the IAEA's Action Plan on Nuclear Safety and the publication of IAEA report on Fukushima Daiichi, and reaffirm our commitment to continue our efforts to ensure highest global nuclear safety and to support the IAEA.
- We confirm the importance of promoting the highest level of nuclear safety in international nuclear transfers and cooperation. We remain committed to facilitate the development of the infrastructure necessary for states embarking on a nuclear power program according to the highest standards of safety, security and non-proliferation. We urge all countries, when exporting nuclear power plants, to accord with the "OECD Common Approaches for ECA" and to encourage destination states to host relevant IAEA peer review missions, such as Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review Mission, Integrated Regulatory Review Service and Site and External Events Design Review Services, prior to commissioning their first nuclear power plant. We encourage newcomer countries to apply IAEA Safety Standards. We remain committed to improving the safety and performance of nuclear and fuel cycle facilities at all stages of the lifecycle, including life extensions and end of life.
- We recognize the importance of working towards establishing a global nuclear liability regime and encourage all states to join the international nuclear liability instruments as a step toward achieving such a global regime.
- We encourage all states to become parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. We support efforts to enhance the implementation of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS), including the February 2015 Vienna Declaration of Nuclear Safety by CNS Contracting Parties. We encourage Contracting Parties' full participation in the 7thReview Meeting of CNS to be held in March 2017, which allows Contracting Parties to both assess their nuclear safety regimes and learn from the best practices of other countries. We urge Contracting Parties to submit comprehensive reports and participate actively in the peer review process.
- 30 years after the Chernobyl nuclear catastrophe, we stress the importance of the completion of the Chernobyl nuclear safety projects in order to convert the Chernobyl site into a stable and environmentally safe condition from a safety and functional perspective. In this regard, we emphasize the importance of the successful completion of the Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (ISF-2) project, recognizing the need to meet the shortage of the Nuclear Safety Account. We reaffirm, subject to budgetary feasibilities, our commitment to the principles stated on the Memorandum of Understanding signed on December 20, 1995 between the Governments of the G7 member states and the Commission of the European Communities and the Government of Ukraine on the Closure of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant by the Year 2000.
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Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy
- We recognize that all State Parties to the NPT have an inalienable right to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes in conformity with their international obligations under Articles I,II and III of the NPT, reiterate our willingness to cooperate with States which meet their nuclear non-proliferation obligations and which wish to develop a peaceful civil nuclear program with full transparency that meets the highest standards of safety, security, non-proliferation and respect for the environment. We encourage all States to work towards enhancing international cooperation in the field of education and training, which is of the utmost importance to the responsible development of nuclear energy.
- We strongly support the IAEA's activities under "Atoms for Peace and Development" under the leadership of Director-General Yukiya Amano aimed at widening and deepening the benefits of peaceful uses of nuclear technology that can also contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
- In this regard, we actively support the IAEA's niche expertise in contributing to the SDGs through its Technical Cooperation Program, including through providing support to the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Fund and Peaceful Uses Initiative, in order to further the IAEA's unique contribution in areas such as human health, agriculture, water management and industrial applications, as well as energy and climate change, and also recognizing and supporting the IAEA's Program of Action for Cancer Therapy and its unique expertise in early detection, proper diagnosis, treatment and care of cancer in partnership with other international organizations.
- We acknowledge the importance of the IAEA's Renovation of its Nuclear Application Laboratories (ReNuAL) in Seibersdorf, which is needed to ensure global development needs are met through cutting edge scientific research, and encourage all States to contribute additional funding to ensure that ReNuAL is completed on time and on budget.
- We encourage the broader membership of the International Science and Technology Center to further promote its activities to support scientists and engineers with knowledge and skills of developing WMDs to engage in peaceful activities.
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Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons
- We are deeply concerned about terrorists' continued use of conventional arms including small arms and light weapons in a series of attacks, and recognize the need to prevent the acquisition and use by terrorist of conventional arms, including small arms and light weapons, as well as weapons such as Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS), improvised explosive devices and anti-tank guided missiles.
- We stress the importance of the relevant international instruments and national laws which help regulate conventional arms transfer to prevent the illicit transfer of conventional arms and their diversion, including in the commission of terrorists acts. We will strengthen cooperation to prevent the transfer of conventional arms to terrorists in the relevant frameworks such as the Wassenaar Arrangement.
- We continue to promote the universalization of the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), and full and effective national implementation of its obligations and urge consideration of the UN Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.
- We call for the UN Register of Conventional Arms to be expanded to include small arms and light weapons as one of its categories of weapons.
- We call on all states concerned to fully implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (PoA); the International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace in a Timely Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (ITI); and the Guidelines of the Wassenaar Arrangement.
- We endorse steps and efforts at the national, regional and multilateral level that would contribute to preventing the acquisition and use of conventional arms by terrorists, including those steps to reduce and where possible destroy, excessive state-held stockpile and to enhance physical security and stockpile management capabilities in the countries concerned. In this regard, we welcome the initiative taken by Germany in advancing our coordination efforts to enhance cooperation among African states, donor states and implementing partners to combat the illicit transfer of conventional arms in particular in the Sahel region. We will remain engaged in coordinating our efforts in this regard together with regional partners such as the African Union.
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- In order to strengthen a rules-based outer space environment that enhances its safety, security, sustainability and stability, we reiterate the need to evolve and implement, in a prompt and pragmatic manner, principles of responsible behavior for all outer space activities.
- We recognize that irresponsible intentional destruction of space objects and the resulting creation and diffusion of long-lived orbital debris, including by ASAT-tests, are serious threats to international peace and security. In this regard, we encourage all States to take appropriate measures to cooperate in good faith to avoid harmful interference with outer space activities and stress the importance of all states, in a manner consistent with international law, to refrain from any action which brings about, directly or indirectly, damage, or destruction, of space objects.
- We reaffirm our commitment, and call on all states, to review and implement, to the extent practicable, the proposed transparency and confidence-building measures contained in the recommendations of the UN Group of Governmental Experts Report (A/68/189, 29 July 2013) such as information exchange on space policies and strategies, information exchange and notifications related to outer space activities in a timely manner and an effective consultation mechanism.
- We support efforts to rapidly complete clear, practicable and proven Guidelines for Long-Term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities by the UN Committee on the Peaceful Use of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) in June 2016 and encourage all Member States of the Committee to play a constructive role to this end.
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Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan