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The Prospective Agenda for the
2006 G8 St. Petersburg Summit

Laura Sunderland
Senior Researcher, G8 Research Group
June 7, 2006

See also Prospective Agenda for Finance Ministers Meetings
See also Prospective Agenda for G8 Foreign Ministers
See also Sherpa Meetings

International Energy Security
Health
Education
Migration and Demography
Aid and Development
Trade
Environment
Terrorism
Nonproliferation
North Korea
Crisis Management
Middle East
Counterfeit Goods
Military Proposals
Russia
G8 Outreach
General Preparations
Notes
Earlier Versions


This prospective G8 2006 Summit Agenda is compiled by the G8 Research Group from public sources as an aid to researchers and other stakeholders interested in the July 15-17th, 2006 St. Petersburg G8 Summit. It will be updated periodically as the St. Petersburg Summit planning evolves and as more information becomes available about its intended and actual agenda.


International Energy Security

On June 6, 2006, British prime minister Tony Blair stated that he will raise the issue of climate change with his counterparts at the G8 Summit.[1]

On June 6, 2006, the Brazilian Finance Ministry announced that Brazil will present its biofuel technology, which allows automobiles to run on gasoline or ethanol, at the G8 Summit.[2]

On May 16, 2006, Igor Shuvalov stated that an energy document that may be adopted by the leaders at the G8 summit, will state that energy security "should be based on market mechanisms that will open a lengthy cycle of investments, and prevent a negative impact by possible political decisions."[3] Shuvalov also said that he hopes the summit will yield a "new long-term investment cycle" in energy.[4]

On April 13, 2006, Russian chairman of the Federation Council's international affairs committee, Mikhail Margelov, stated in regards to the Russian Economic Forum in London that "Not a single country can guarantee global energy stability all alone. This stability is ensured on the hydrocarbon market situation on which equally depends on behavior of producers and consumers. Along with this, in modern terminology the matter is usually not about energy stability but about energy security. Russia claims a role of a great energy power, which actually speaking corresponds to its current importance for the global oil and gas market.

I think that the claim of Russia for importance in global trade in energy resources is accepted by political and business community of the West. However, we need to bear in mind that consumers, that is the West, and hydrocarbon producers, in this case Russia, may have different notions about energy security. It is important for exporters to have more or less permanent demand for energy resources. For the US, for example, since the times of the oil crisis of the 1970s the notion of "energy security" has been merged with the notion of "energy independence." The West considers the main condition of energy security to be diversification of sources of obtaining of hydrocarbons and the ways of their delivery to the places of consumption. Another condition is taking into account of appearance of new large consumers in Asia, first of all, China and India. Their participation in negotiations about prices and volumes of supplies is necessary. The third condition is reliability of supplies and security of transit including protection from terrorist attacks and looting of raw materials. Experts also point at integration of market players as a factor providing for its stability. Naturally, Russia shares these notions.

The West was confused by the gas incident between Russia and Ukraine. There was probably not a single speech dedicated to energy topics that did not mention it. I think that this is, as usually, seriously exaggerated because since then there have been no complaints from Europeans about reduction of gas supplies from Russia. It does not make sense for Russia to provoke energy hunger. Moreover, planning pipelines to the West and to the East bypassing transit countries Russia strengthens common energy security. The fewer the borders the more reliable the supplies."[5]

On April 12, 2006, Russian sherpa Igor Shuvalov was hosted by Russian Ambassador Georgiy Mamedov in Ottawa.[6] The Embassy's press release stated that energy supply "is crucial for sustainable economic development and political stability in the world." It went on to say that leaders must examine the issue of energy security in the context of global climate change and must bear in mind that the world's poorest countries cannot access affordable energy.[7]

On March 20, 2006, Russian Foreign Minister, Sergey Lavrov stated that measures to stabilize the hydrocarbon and raw materials markets and to curb threats to international power safety will be considered at the Summit.[8] He also stated that the search for alternative sources and minimizing the impact on the environment will be considered.

On March 15, 2006, Kyodo News announced that the G8 leaders will endorse Moscow's initiative to establish centres for international nuclear fuel cycle services at the summit.[9] The G8 leaders, according to a leaked draft copy of the "Global Energy Security" joint statement and action plan, will also call for increasing the use of nuclear energy, boosting investment in oil and gas supplies, and promoting global cooperation to deal with terrorism aimed at energy facilities.[10] The "Global Energy Security" paper is dated March 6 and is to be released July 16 by the G8 leaders. It focuses on fossil fuels supplies and nuclear energy.[11]

On March 1, 2006, President Putin's article "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsibility" was published.[12] On energy security, he stated that: "The establishment of a reliable and comprehensive system of energy security is clearly one of the strategic goals for the G8 and the world community as a whole. Today, global energy is an important and true engine of social and economic progress. This is why it directly affects the well-being of billions of people around the globe.

meeting current challenges< in this field but also outline our coordinated policy for the long term.

globalization of the energy sector makes energy security indivisible. Our common future in the area of energy means common responsibilities, risks and benefits.

strategy for achieving global energy security. It should be based on a long-term, reliable and environmentally sustainable energy supply at prices affordable to both the exporting countries and the consumers. In addition to reconciling the interests of stakeholders in the global energy interaction, we will have to identify practical measures aimed at ensuring sustainable access of the world economy to traditional sources of energy, as well as promoting energy-saving programmes and developing alternative energy sources<.

Generally speaking, all of us should recognize and admit that "energy egoism" in a modern and highly interdependent world is a road to nowhere. Therefore Russia's attitude towards energy security remains clear and unchanged. It is our strong belief that energy redistribution guided wholly by the priorities of a small group of most developed countries does not serve the goals and purposes of global development. We will strive to create an energy security system sensitive to the interests of the whole international community. Basically all it takes is for the mankind to create a balanced potential in order to provide every State with sustainable energy supply, and international cooperation opens all avenues for that."[13]

On March 1, 2006, in a press conference, President Putin said that energy security is the number one item on the agenda.[14] He stated that: "we have agreed with our partners on these priorities that we proposed. All of our colleagues agree that these are very important matters and that paramount among them is the question of energy security. At any rate, energy security is one of the biggest problems facing us today and it will be a big issue for the future too given that without energy, without resolving energy issues, no development at all is possible. But I want to make it clear that by energy security we mean not just the energy needs of the most industrially developed countries but the needs of every member of the international community. We are well aware that billions of people — around two billion by our estimates — have problems with access to the benefits of modern civilisation precisely because their countries have insufficient energy. And we know for a fact that millions of people do not even have electricity. In talking about energy security then, we are talking about the needs of the entire world and not just of the industrially developed countries. Of course, we also chose to address this issue because we believe that Russia can make a noticeable and significant contribution to its resolution. I do not think there is anyone in the world today who would doubt that Russia can make a contribution to resolving this global challenge that we face."[15]

On March 1, 2006, Putin stated on Russia TV that: "When we speak of energy security we mean not only the needs of the most developed industrial countries of the world but also of all other members of the international community, because we are well aware of the fact that millions and even billions of people — about 2bn people, according to our estimates — experience problems as they have no access to modern conveniences of civilization precisely because there is not enough energy in their countries. And millions of people, for sure, do not even have access to electricity."[16]

On February 28, 2006, Russia's nuclear oversight service chief, Konstantin Pulikovsky, told journalists that Russia will propose establishing international centres to license nuclear research.[17] Pulikovsky stated that: "Russia would benefit from the establishment of such centersÉ This proposal will be submitted to the G8 leaders when they gather in Russia." He went on to state that "licensing will be particularly important if one country participates in building an NPP on the territory of another countryÉ This will help secure the consent of all parties taking part in the construction process."[18]

On February 24, Russian daily Moskovskiye Novosty published an article by Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov.[19] Lavrov stated that energy security will be based on a responsible and well balanced approach to the problems in the Middle East, including socio-economic and political modernization.[20] He went on to state: "In general, Russia has to make its choice between stability in the world energy sector and the policy of Ôcontrolled destabilization' and Ômodernization,' regardless of what it is related to."[21] He said that the move within the Commonwealth of Independent States to market prices on natural gas ended the "old and nostalgic" and has led to "new realistic policy on the post-Soviet space based on mutual benefit and the actual sovereignty of CIS member states."[22]

On January 25, 2006, President Putin announced at a meeting of the Eurasian Economic Community's intergovernmental council in St. Petersburg that Russia is ready to establish an international center of uranium enrichment, supervised by the International Atomic Energy Agency.[23] Putin announced that he will put forth this proposal at the G8 summit in July.[24]

In the Address by Russian President Vladimir Putin to visitors to the official site of Russia's G8 Presidency in 2006, Putin stated: "This year, we plan to urge our partners to redouble efforts to ensure global energy security… I am convinced that our efforts towards attaining this goal should be comprehensive and must stimulate stabilization of the global energy markets, development of innovation technologies, use of renewable energy sources and protection of the environment. We believe that today, we must think very seriously about ways to bridge the gap between energy-sufficient and energy-lacking countries… Issues of global energy security should be considered in the context of two other crucial problems: global climate change and the lack of access of a considerable number of the world's poorest sections to pure and affordable energy."[25] The website suggests that "Ensuring energy security calls for the following joint actions by the international community: reliable and effective provision of traditional hydrocarbon energy resources to the global economy; energy diversification through the use of new energy sources and technologies; and more efficient use of energy resources."[26]

The Russian Presidency website outlines the Russian position on energy security: "International energy security is of special significance to Russia, which has one of the world's biggest fuel and energy potentials."[27] The specifics of Russia's energy capacities are noted, and then the site goes on to state that: "As a global energy and resource power, Russia will use its G8 Presidency in 2006 to promote international action on acute problems of energy security with due regard for the interests and possibilities of Russia and its role of a reliable and stable energy supplier.

In this period, Russia will work to reinforce G8 approaches to energy security and at the same time outline its view of the problem and national priorities." As both a large consumer and producer of energy "Russia can act as the link between hydrocarbons suppliers and consumers, taking into account the opinions of all concerned parties and promoting the search for a balance of interests of all players on the global energy market."[28]

"During its Presidency, Russia will offer its partners to draft a coordinated strategy for reliable and prompt supply of the global economy and nations with all kinds of energy at prices based on the main economic principles, with the least possible damage to the environment."[29]

"This strategy will stipulate joint measures to ensure the stability of global energy markets, increase investment into the main links of global energy, develop alternative sources of energy, accelerate the introduction of energy saving and efficient technologies, and ensure access to modern energy services for everyone."[30]

The Russian role as president of the G8 will be to "put forth a package of measures and an action plan to overcome economic and technological barriers to raising the efficiency of traditional and developing new energy technologies. As the holder of a considerable share of the world's energy resources and a major energy producer and exporter with a high research and technological potential, Russia is ready to participate in the creation of a global energy infrastructure to ensure effective production, transfer and use of clean energy."[31]

Following the 2005 Gleneagles Summit, Putin announced: "At the same time, however, Russia proposes making world energy policy the key issue for the next summit. Even during our discussions on global finances, world trade and global economic development yesterday, more than two-thirds of our attention was spent on energy issues. It is only natural that Russia, the world leader on the energy market, should focus precisely on energy policy. If you put together Russia's energy potential in all areas, oil, gas, and nuclear, our country is unquestionably the world leader. We are most certainly ready to discuss all these issues and want to make this the main subject for our summit... We will increase our supply of energy resources to the world market and we will also continue to work on developing nuclear energy. Regarding nuclear energy, there are also many non-proliferation issues that we need to discuss, as this is a very sensitive subject."[32]

On February 2, 2006, deputy head of the Russian Federal Agency for Nuclear Power, Sergei Antipov, announced that Russia is preparing nuclear energy proposals for the St. Petersburg summit on fast neutron reactors and international uranium enrichment centers.[33] Antipov stated that the agency is working on targeted programs for nuclear energy development and nuclear and radioactive security, and that "the main issues are the international fuel cycle and fast neutron reactors." [34]

On February 1, 2006, Yevgeny Velikov, member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and president of the Kurchatov Institute research center, stated that they expect an international agreement on the construction of an experimental fusion reactor ITER will be signed at the St. Petersburg Summit.[35]

On January 11, 2006, Russian Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin told reporters that, "During its presidency in the G8 [in 2006], Russia plans to focus on counteraction to infectious diseases, energy security and energy supplies to G8 nations, and education." He also stated that the Russian agenda would include discussions of further development and higher transparency of energy markets, more investment in the energy sector, and alternative energy sources. He stated that, "Russia will increase oil and gas production and exports to international markets and develop alternative energy sources, including nuclear power." [36]

Kudrin noted specifically that: "The issues for Russia's presidency of the G8 are connected with the drafting of the principles and an action plan to ensure the stable provision of energy supplies for all countries, and in addition there will be discussion of developing and increasing the transparency of energy markets and also attracting new investment into energy and developing alternative energy sources."[37] Ensuring energy supplies is central to the Russian G8 agenda.[38]

Russia aims to increase investment in energy infrastructure, particularly transporting liquefied natural gas and completing pipelines.[39] Energy security is a major issue on the Russian agenda.[40]

Russian Foreign Minister Konuzin stated that Russia agrees with the G8 leaders that nuclear energy must be developed further.[41] He stated that nuclear and hydroelectric energy are the only alternatives to fossil fuel.[42]

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Health

On May 16, Igor Shuvalov stated that the creation of an international center for developing a vaccine against HIV will be on the agenda for the G8 Summit.[43] On May 22, Professor Andrei Kozlov, the head of St. Petersburg's Biomedical Centre, stated that the centre will cost one billion roubles to create and that funding will be provided from the federal and local budgets of the Russian Federation as well as Russian and international organizations and private donators.[44]

On April 12, 2006, Russia's chief doctor, Gennady Onishchenko, reported that HIV/AIDS, polio and measles (??) will be discussed at the summit.[45]

On April 12, 2006, Russian sherpa Igor Shuvalov was hosted by Russian Ambassador Georgiy Mamedov in Ottawa.[46] The Embassy's press release stated that "[infectious] diseases spread at a different rate and take a different toll in various regions and communities is a litmus test of aggravating hardship, discrimination, social injustice, and a widening gap and strengthening tension between developed and developing nationsÉ Such diseases as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and new ones like avian flu grossly impede nations economically and socially and are a threat to sustainable development." [47]

On April 12, 2006, Russia's chief doctor, Gennady Onishchenko stated that at the G8 Summit Russia will propose measures to improve global monitoring of prevalent infectious diseases, including those caused by influenza.[48] He also stated that HIV/AIDS, polio and measles will also be among the diseases to be discussed by leaders.[49]

On March 27, Russian Chief Medical Sanitation Officer, Gernnady Onishchenko, met with the head of the World Health Organization.[50] They discussed issues that Russia will bring to the summit table.[51] Russia has prepared a draft document outlining the problems of perfecting infectious diseases' monitoring, avian flu, poliomyelitis, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and measles.[52]

On March 1, 2006, President Putin's article "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsibility" was published.[53] On health, he stated that: "Throughout its history, the human race finds itself fighting against a genuine threat to its survival — that of the spread of infectious diseases. The progress made might seem encouraging: smallpox was eliminated once and for all throughout the world while fight against poliomyelitis is drawing to a close. Yet our times are also plagued by the outbreaks of both known and new and highly dangerous diseases such as AIDS, exotic viral hemorrhagic fever, microplasma infections, and bird flu. Today, infections account for every third death in the world. According to experts, in the years to come there is a high probability of a new strain of pandemic influenza that would claim millions of lives.

[54]

On March 1, 2006, in a press conference, President Putin stated that: "I certainly hope that we will make progress not just in examining this issue but also in resolving the problems that we face in our fight against infectious diseases. Humanity has waged a war for survival against infectious diseases throughout its entire existence. History gives us numerous examples of these battles in Europe and on other continents, in other countries. In our modern history too we have the example first of AIDS, and then it was SARS that was in the headlines, and now we face the challenge of avian flu. This is all not just chance and I think therefore that we are right to make this combat against infectious diseases a priority. We must be ready for any turn the situation may take. We can prepare ourselves by uniting forces in the fight against disease and by making the necessary resources available on time. And these resources need to be made available not just in countries riding the wave of economic or financial success but also in countries that do not have such possibilities today. Our common effort will be effective only if it is as global as the threat itself. I very much hope that by uniting the efforts of politicians, scientists, public figures, informal organisations and NGOs, we will be able to make real progress and achieve real improvement on this front." [55]

On March 1, 2006, Putin stated on Russia TV that: "Throughout its entire existence, humankind has been combating infections and struggling to survive. And in modern history we, almost all countries, are discussing the AIDS problem, then atypical pneumonia becomes the talk of the town, and now it's bird flu. We should be ready for any course of events. And this readiness should be manifested in pooling efforts to fight these problems and in allocating the required funds in good time."[56]

In the Address by Russian President Vladimir Putin to visitors to the official site of Russia's G8 Presidency in 2006, Putin stated: "Russia, as the presiding country, regards it as its duty to give a fresh impetus to efforts to find solutions to key international problems in energy, education and healthcare

The spread of all kinds of epidemics in the world emphasizes the need to step up the fight against infectious diseases. We are convinced that the creation of a global system to monitor dangerous diseases, the development of regular interaction between experts from different states, and broader exchange of research information about dangerous viruses will have a major positive influence on the solution of these serious problems." [57]

Following the 2005 Gleneagles Summit, Putin announced: "Another area of assistance to the poorest countries, including in Africa, is in helping them solve healthcare and education problems. By the way, I want to make the issues of fighting the most dangerous diseases and improving education part of the agenda for the G8 summit in 2006. We also have to deal with these problems in our own country. We need to work out a common approach and a common philosophy and put in place the mechanisms for resolving these issues."[58]

On February 3, during a meeting with Russian non-governmental organizations in Moscow, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov noted that infectious disease is high on the St. Petersburg agenda.[59] Lavrov stated that: "The problem of bird flu, malaria and poliomyelitis is acute now… The central direction of work should become the strengthening of the global information and analytical network for the prevention of these diseases."[60]

Fighting infectious disease is a major issue on the Russian agenda.[61] Addressing infectious diseases is related to the Gleneagles African agenda.[62] Russian Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin told reporters on January 11, 2006, that, "During its presidency in the G8 [in 2006], Russia plans to focus on counteraction to infectious diseases, energy security and energy supplies to G8 nations, and education."[63]

The Russian presidency will take up issues discussed at the 2005 Gleneagles summit, specifically terrorism, the health sector (including AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria), non-proliferation, crisis management for conflicts, and aid to developing countries. For development aid, Putin will move away from Africa to emphasize the situation in the former Soviet states. [64]

The Russian HIV/AIDS situation is worsening, and is an important issue for the Russians.[65]

Bird Flu:

On February 3, during a meeting with Russian non-governmental organizations in Moscow, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov noted that infectious disease is high on the St. Petersburg agenda.[66] Lavrov stated that: "We will offer our plan of actions for bird flu fight." [67]

On February 2, 2006, Russian Health and Social Development Minister Mikhail Zurabov stated that Russia has developed an action plan to develop a vaccine against bird flu, immunize poultry, train experts and purchase diagnostic equipment.[68] Zurabov also announced that Russia will initiate a G8 trust fund to fight bird flu, which would be administered by the World Bank. [69] Russia will contribute $1 million to the fund.[70]

On January 27, 2006, Chief Russian Epidemiologist Gennady Onishchenko announced that bird flu prevention and control will feature prominently on the G8 summit agenda. [71] He stated that: "Russia is preparing proposals [on bird flu prevention], and at this preliminary stage, it is receiving enthusiastic support from all the G8 member states."[72]

Controlling the spread of bird flu is of particular interest to Russia, given its proximity to infected Asian countries and the recent outbreak of H5N1 in Russian poultry.[73] G8 policymakers will discuss an early alert system for a potential (human-to-human transmitted) outbreak of bird flu.[74] The G8 will consider generating, and providing, the developing world with, new vaccines. They will also discuss the importance of transparency in reporting infections, working with and strengthening the World Health Organization, and stockpiling anti-flu drugs. [75]

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Education

On April 12, 2006, Russian sherpa Igor Shuvalov was hosted by Russian Ambassador Georgiy Mamedov in Ottawa. [76] The Embassy's press release stated that expert knowledge and equal access to information are essential to economic growth and increasing quality of life.[77] It stated that G8 countries have problems linking educational systems to the demands of the labour market, and that there is a disconnect between what is taught in the educational system and what is required in terms of expertise.[78] The release also stated that poor countries are obstructed in their goal of global economic and social prosperity, because they are unable to adopt the new technology in order to become competitive in the unskilled-labor market.[79]

On March 1, 2006, President Putin's article "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsibility" was published.[80] On education , he stated that: "Our common tasks in the area of education deserve serious attention. In a post-industrial information society, education becomes a prerequisite for success in the daily life and a major input into the economic development. It is one of the most important elements of a growing social identity, moral values and stronger democracy. Moreover, as technologies improve, labor market favors higher-skilled specialists, and education requirements are constantly increasing as a result. Its goals and content are consequently changing. Today, possessing a certain amount of knowledge and skills is not enough; one has to be ready to constantly upgrade and adapt them to new requirements.

[81]

On March 1, 2006, in a press conference, President Putin stated that: "Education is an issue that concerns all countries without exception, regardless of their level of economic development. Of course, there are countries in need of particular support for the development of education. But the issue concerns all countries because even in the developed countries we often face the problem of illiteracy or low levels of literacy. This is a huge problem and it is not just linked to education. There can be no economic or social development without education — that is clear. But poor education and illiteracy also have other repercussions that are not even linked to education at first glance. To give an example, poorly educated people are easy prey for all manner of radical preachers and for missionaries from various extremist organisations. Poor education creates fertile soil for xenophobia and for stirring up interethnic and inter-religious hatred. Ultimately, poor education creates a breeding ground for terrorism. Education therefore is an area of great importance, closely linked to many other areas, and as such it is always high on the agenda at the G8 summits and will be one of the priorities for our presidency."[82]

On March 1, 2006, Putin stated on Russia TV that: "Progress, either economic or social, is impossible without education. However, the absence of the required quality and level of education, illiteracy lead to other consequences which, at first glance, are not linked to education. I have in mind the fact that poorly educated people are very easily manipulated by all kind of missionaries of various extremist organizations and preachers of the most extreme nature. Also, this is a breeding ground for xenophobia and for fanning interethnic and interfaith strife. In the end, this is a feeding ground for terrorism." [83]

On March 1, 2006, in an interview with Russian Mayak Radio, President Putin stated that: "From one summit to the next, there are themes which are being discussed almost all the time to some degree. We have just talked about problems of education. I remember that the first time I took part in the work with my G8 colleagues, I think this was in Japan, we were already discussing education problems. We were mostly speaking about education for women, for young girls because this is a real problem for some countries of the world. This is a problem which is both social and education-related, a complex problem. You can see that this subject has been present in all discussions from one summit to the next."[84]

In the Address by Russian President Vladimir Putin to visitors to the official site of Russia's G8 Presidency in 2006, Putin stated: "Russia, as the presiding country, regards it as its duty to give a fresh impetus to efforts to find solutions to key international problems in energy, education and healthcare….

In addition to the current agenda, we also plan to raise the issue of education in the G8. In our opinion, the time has come to focus on ways to improve the quality and effectiveness of national education systems and professional training. We must find tools for encouraging the international business community to increase investment into this sector."[85]

The Russian Presidency website outlines the problem of education. It states that: "Today, the status of any country largely depends on the number of experts it has with the knowledge and skills required in the modern world. The use of new information is the main factor in the growth of national economies and the quality of life of vast numbers of people. This makes the development of education a major challenge for the G8 leaders."[86] The Russian site suggests that there is "a weak link between the educational systems and the labor markets. As a result, the level of knowledge and skills of school and college graduates is below the requirements of the modern economy, which is short of experts. This situation makes education less attractive to investors, which, in turn, causes a reduction in the number of qualified teachers, who are able to upgrade the methodologies used in school and professional education."[87] The education gap between industrialized and developing countries is noted as a problem that the Russian presidency suggests "may seriously obstruct the progress of the global economy and social prosperity."[88] The site concludes that: "Education is a major condition for success of individual countries and regions, and for this reason its failure to meet the requirements of the modern economy is a global challenge of our times."[89]

The Russian position on education, as outlined by the Russian presidency website, is as follows: "Under the circumstances, Russia intends to make initiatives both in the field of primary and secondary education, and in professional training."[90] It notes that the 2000 Education for All (EFA) program is a G8 priority, and that "in 2006, Russia suggests that the G8 concentrate on upgrading the quality of basic education, and creating mechanisms for assessing the quality of basic education in the developing nations in the EFA framework." Furthermore, Russia will focus on professional education, noting that "the global effort should focus on creating an international system for comparing professional competence, and evaluating the quality of professional training. This will promote free movement of skilled personnel, which is a major condition of the global economic development."[91] Russia also emphasizes the importance of international academic exchange programs and cooperation between universities in industrialized and developing nations.[92]

The site goes on to state that: "Russia has proposed discussing with other G8 members a number of measures of social, cultural, and professional adaptation of migrants via education. This is important because today migration is indispensable for a steady economic growth of both industrialized and developing nations."[93]

The website concludes that: "Russia has an effective system of primary education, a successful experience of social and educational policies in the poly-ethnic and multi-religious environment, and solid traditions of fundamental education. In view of this, discussion of the suggested issues during the forthcoming G8 summit in St. Petersburg may generate a number of major decisions, which will substantially promote the development of the global economy." [94]

Following the 2005 Gleneagles Summit, Putin announced: "Another area of assistance to the poorest countries, including in Africa, is in helping them solve healthcare and education problems. By the way, I want to make the issues of fighting the most dangerous diseases and improving education part of the agenda for the G8 summit in 2006. We also have to deal with these problems in our own country. We need to work out a common approach and a common philosophy and put in place the mechanisms for resolving these issues."[95]

On March 1, 2006, in an interview with Rossiya state television, President Putin stated that education is key to combating extremism.[96] Putin said that: "It is very easy for the missionaries of various extremist organizations and preachers of the most extremist stripe to work with illiterate people... This is a nutrient medium for xenophobia, for the inflammation of interethnic and inter-religious enmity. It is, in the final analysis, fertile ground for terrorism."[97]

On January 19, 2006, Russian deputy minister for education and science, Dmitry Livanov, announced at the World Bank Economics Conference in St. Petersburg that Russia will put forward a range of education-focused initatives at the Summit, specifically improving the quality of professional education, providing high-quality education in schools, and creating programs to help immigrants adapt to their new homes.[98] Livanov stated that the Russian education initiatives will "make a significant contribution to improving the quality of the national education systems of different countries." [99]

Russian Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin told reporters on January 11, 2006, that, "During its presidency in the G8 [in 2006], Russia plans to focus on counteraction to infectious diseases, energy security and energy supplies to G8 nations, and education." [100]

In December 2005, Russian Minister of Education and Science, Andrei Fursenko announced that the G8 leaders will "discuss the integration of science and education, and an education component in development of the scientific-technological sphere just because this excites all."[101]

In December 2005, the Russian Economic Development and Trade Ministry proposed a new government program for training managers which is meant to run from 2007 to 2012 and would be launched at the G8 Summit.[102] Sergei Naryshkin, head of the Russian cabinet office, is reviewing a draft of the concept. [103]

Education is a focus of the Russian agenda.[104] G8 leaders will discuss increasing aid to improve education in developing countries.[105] G8 officials will likely call for vocational training and distance learning using the internet. [106]

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Migration and Demography

Migration and Demography:

The website of the Russian presidency notes that in connection with its position on education, migration plays a role. It states that: "Russia has proposed discussing with other G8 members a number of measures of social, cultural, and professional adaptation of migrants via education. This is important because today migration is indispensable for a steady economic growth of both industrialized and developing nations."[107]

Following the 2005 Gleneagles Summit, Putin announced: "You know, we tend to shy away from addressing certain problems we face in our own countries. One of these is the demographic problem — a matter of great importance for all of us. The fatter and richer we all become, the greater our demographic problems become. All my colleagues agreed with me that we should think about this over the coming year and make some decisions in St Petersburg at our next summit that will have a positive impact on the situation in our countries. You are no doubt familiar with the United Nations' forecasts in this area. All the European countries are in a situation of demographic decline. The only G8 country with positive demographic growth is the United States, and this is thanks to immigrants and the Latin American population. It is good that they have found at least some way of resolving the problem, but I think that even there it is still not enough. Today, therefore, when I consulted with my partners during the first part of our meeting on whether they think we could also discuss this matter, they all agreed. What's more, [EU Commission President] Mr Barroso said that a study would soon be made of the demographic situation in the European Union, and this could serve as the basis for the materials we will use to prepare this subject ... Russia is constantly increasing its supplies to the world markets, and not just to the G8 countries but to all players on the market. It would be a bad thing if we started just dealing amongst ourselves in our own little club. It would be a very negative signal for the rest of the world. The world, fortunately, does not consist of the G8 countries alone but is far broader, far more interesting and diverse. Our task is not just to resolve the problems we face, such as the demographic problem, which is of particular importance above all for the G8 countries, but, working from an economic point of view, our task is to help make the world more harmonious and make the rules governing international economic interaction more democratic." [108]

On January 19, 2006, Russian deputy minister for education and science, Dmitry Livanov, announced at the World Bank Economics Conference in St. Petersburg that the Russian education programs for immigrants are linked to the issue of demographic security. [109]

Migration policies to stop Russia's declining population will be addressed.[110]

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Aid and Development

On June 6, 2006, Russian Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin announced that "This year, Russia will join the G8's HIPC initiative, writing off $700 million debts."[111]

On June 6, 2006, the Brazilian Finance Ministry announced that Brazilian president Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva wants to discuss his proposal on fighting world hunger by taxing air travel at the summit.[112]

On May 17, 2006, Igor Shuvalov stated that the G8 Summit would not, contrary to previous reports, include a discussion of the situations in Belarus, Moldova and Georgia.[113] Shuvalov noted that "delicate subjects" including the CIS countries would not be included in the leaders' agenda, but may be discussed by the foreign ministers prior to the summit.[114] Shuvalov also stated that if the foreign minister were unable to reach a conclusion, the leaders may touch on the subjects.[115]

On April 23, 2006, top US diplomat, Nicholas Burns, stated that the US would like to see problems in the ex-Soviet Republics on the G8 agenda in St. Petersburg.[116]

In April, 2006 Russian Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin stated that: "Russia as the chair of G8 sees its task in making of individual contribution to mobilization of resources aimed at international development ."[117]

On March 1, 2006, President Putin's article "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsibility" was published. [118] On education, he stated that: "The Group will remain focused on the problems of development assistance as well as the prevention of environmental degradation and critical issues of the world economy, finance and trade." [119]

Following the 2005 Gleneagles Summit, Putin announced: "Regarding the main subjects on the agenda, under Russia's presidency, the work will follow on from previous summits, including this one. We cannot ignore the question of overcoming poverty, and we cannot ignore the fight against terrorism ... These questions aside, I also think that if we are talking about overcoming poverty and about global economic integration, we should not forget the interests of the post-Soviet area. We also want to make this a part of our work on these issues. Finally, I think that there are some issues that demand particular attention from the G8 today, and these are issues that concern not only the world's poorest countries, not only those who need our economic assistance and our political and moral support ... I think we already gained a great deal from the assistance we have provided in the past. I would like to note that first the Soviet Union and then Russia have always had a special relationship with the African continent. A large number of Africa's present leaders studied in the Russian Federation. It would be simply foolish to let slip this immense political capital that we so greatly need today. The previous generation of our citizens built up this special relationship at a substantial cost and it would be foolish indeed to simply throw it all away. What form does our assistance take today? Above all, it takes the form of writing off debts. We are one of the leaders in this respect. What we are talking about here is writing off the debts of countries whose level of economic development makes it impossible for them to ever be able to repay these debts. We are therefore taking steps to help them."[120]

On February 13, 2006, President Putin stated that the G8 should allocate official development assistance to members of the Commonwealth of Independent States. [121]

On February 7, 2006, Russian President Vladimir Putin said that one G8 objective is to assist developing countries.[122] He stated that the elimination of poverty is always on the G8 agenda and that: "The reason for this is clear, as the so-called challenges of the present time have their roots in poverty and social inequality, illnesses and low level of educationÉ That is why I think that rich countries, countries with developed economies to be more precise, are interested in establishing contacts with countries that need support."[123]

Aid to Africa is a follow-up topic from last year for the Russians.[124] Russia will turn the focus to poverty in, and aid to, the former Soviet Republics of central Asia.[125]

The Russian presidency will take up issues discussed at the 2005 Gleneagles summit, specifically terrorism, the health sector (including AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria), non-proliferation, crisis management for conflicts, and aid to developing countries. For development aid, Putin will move away from Africa to emphasize the situation in the former Soviet states.[126]

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Trade

On March 1, 2006, President Putin's article "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsibility" was published.[127] On education , he stated that: "The Group will remain focused on the problems of development assistance as well as the prevention of environmental degradation and critical issues of the world economy, finance and trade ." [128]

In the Address by Russian President Vladimir Putin to visitors to the official site of Russia's G8 Presidency in 2006, Putin stated: "Other major international issues we will concentrate on during Russia's Presidency are counterterrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the settlement of regional conflicts, the development of the global economy, finance and trade, as well as protection of the environment." [129]

Following the 2005 Gleneagles Summit, Putin announced: "These questions aside, I also think that if we are talking about overcoming poverty and about global economic integration, we should not forget the interests of the post-Soviet area. We also want to make this a part of our work on these issues. Finally, I think that there are some issues that demand particular attention from the G8 today, and these are issues that concern not only the world's poorest countries, not only those who need our economic assistance and our political and moral support ... No, this summit did not discuss this issue [of expanding the G8]. If you are referring to a possible enlargement, I would say that, as far my personal point of view goes, discussing world trade and economic issues or world finances without, say, China and India, is quite difficult. But there are two circumstances I would like to draw to your attention in this respect... Our task is not just to resolve the problems we face, such as the demographic problem, which is of particular importance above all for the G8 countries, but, working from an economic point of view, our task is to help make the world more harmonious and make the rules governing international economic interaction more democratic. In this respect we remain committed to market mechanisms for the global economy."[130]

Trade-related development for the poor includes technical assistance and aid to improve basic infrastructure in poor countries. Kyodo News reports: "One G8 country is requesting that major emerging economies open their markets to poorer countries, while another urges the developed world to eliminate trade barriers on farm products."[131]

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Environment

On March 1, 2006, President Putin's article "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsibility" was published.[132] On education , he stated that: "The Group will remain focused on the problems of development assistance as well as the prevention of environmental degradation and critical issues of the world economy, finance and trade." [133]

In the Address by Russian President Vladimir Putin to visitors to the official site of Russia's G8 Presidency in 2006, Putin stated: "ÉI am convinced that our efforts towards attaining this goal should be comprehensive and must stimulate stabilization of the global energy markets, development of innovation technologies, use of renewable energy sources and protection of the environment. We believe that today, we must think very seriously about ways to bridge the gap between energy-sufficient and energy-lacking countries…

Other major international issues we will concentrate on during Russia's Presidency are counterterrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the settlement of regional conflicts, the development of the global economy, finance and trade, as well as protection of the environment.

I hope that the official site of Russia's G8 Presidency will help you to get your bearings in the multitude of questions and problems facing us, as well as to learn more about the efforts of G8 member states to solve them in order to promote the sustainable development of humankind ." [134]

On February 6, Konstantin Kosachev, head of the foreign affairs committee at the lower house, noted that Russia will discuss trading in emission quotas under the Kyoto Protocol on combating global warming and other issues.[135]

Climate change is a follow-up topic from last year for the Russians. [136] G8 leaders will consider stopping illegal deforestation to slow climate change.[137] They will also call for the development of clean energy sources, including nuclear energy, to curb climate change.[138]

Russian Foreign Minister Alexander Konuzin announced that the environment "will receive worthy coverage within the framework of the discussion of energy security issues that are a priority for us."[139] Konuzin noted that the goal of guaranteeing energy security and achieving sustainable development require a globally coordinated response. [140] Konuzin announced that: "We support the G8's decision to shift from restrictive policy as far as greenhouse gases are concerned to increasing energy efficiency in industry (transportation, building, housing and utilities infrastructure."[141]

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Terrorism

On March 30, 2006, a Senior Foreign Ministry official announced that Russia will propose new ideas on countering terrorism, including "a coordinating role for the United Nations"[142] and a "call for harmonization of anti-terrorism laws."[143]

On March 1, 2006, President Putin's article "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsibility" was published. [144] On education, he stated that: "Along with the three priorities on the agenda of the Russian Presidency mentioned above, the G8 will continue in 2006 its work on such key issues as the fight against international terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction." [145]

On March 1, 2006, in an interview with Russian Mayak Radio, President Putin stated that: "There are also other themes which are of great concern to us and which have stayed on the agenda all the time. I am speaking about the struggle against terrorism. This is the most topical subject today. It is certain that we will not be able to circumvent the theme, one or another aspect of our activities in this field." [146]

In the Address by Russian President Vladimir Putin to visitors to the official site of Russia's G8 Presidency in 2006, Putin stated: "Other major international issues we will concentrate on during Russia's Presidency are counterterrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the settlement of regional conflicts, the development of the global economy, finance and trade, as well as protection of the environment." [147]

On February 6, 2006, Assistant to the Russian President and Head of the Commission for Russia's involvement in the G8, Igor Shuvalov said that the government also had worked out proposals on seven additional subjects, includingÉthe fight against terrorism. [148]

Following the 2005 Gleneagles Summit, Putin announced: "Regarding the main subjects on the agenda, under Russia's presidency, the work will follow on from previous summits, including this one. We cannot ignore the question of overcoming poverty, and we cannot ignore the fight against terrorism ..."[149]

Anti-terrorism may be an issue on the Russian G8 agenda.[150]

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Nonproliferation

On May 17, 2006, Igor Shuvalov stated that the G8 Summit would not, contrary to previous reports, include a discussion of "delicate subjects" including Iran's nuclear program would not be included in the leaders' agenda, but may be discussed by the foreign ministers prior to the summit.[151] Shuvalov also stated that if the foreign minister were unable to reach a conclusion, the leaders may touch on the subjects.[152]

On April 12, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov reported that the Export Control Commission has compiled a list of 1,152 foreign organizations that Moscow suspects of violating non-proliferation regimes.[153] Ivanov stated that the list will be included in a report on weapons of mass destruction non-proliferation that will be drafted for the summit. [154] Ivanov said that "We will explain our export control system in this report and evaluate the efforts of some foreign organizations and countries in dealing with this threat."[155]

On April 21, 2006, Russian Deputy Foreign Minister, Sergei Kislyak, stated that the G8 summit will discuss non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.[156] Kislyak stated that "All measures were previously aimed at limiting and banning the right to use current technologies. Nonetheless, many countries believe that there is a ban on the development of civil nuclear technologies. We have decided that this question will be reviewed at the summit from positive side."[157] Kislyak also stated that the "creation of international centres for providing services in the nuclear fuel cycle will allow countries to get access to civil nuclear technologies, which will help their economic development."[158]

On March 1, 2006, President Putin's article "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsibility" was published. [159] On education, he stated that: "Along with the three priorities on the agenda of the Russian Presidency mentioned above, the G8 will continue in 2006 its work on such key issues as the fight against international terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction." [160]

On March 1, 2006, in an interview with Russian Mayak Radio, President Putin stated that: "We will certainly speak about the situation concerning Iran's nuclear programme. It is less topical at the moment but the issue is far from closed and it is being discussed in one format or another. I am referring to the situation in the Korean peninsula and the nuclear programme of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, a resolution of all problems evolving with regard to the subject."[161]

In the Address by Russian President Vladimir Putin to visitors to the official site of Russia's G8 Presidency in 2006, Putin stated: "Other major international issues we will concentrate on during Russia's Presidency are counterterrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the settlement of regional conflicts, the development of the global economy, finance and trade, as well as protection of the environment." [162]

On February 6, Konstantin Kosachev, head of the foreign affairs committee at the lower house, noted that Russia will discuss nuclear disarmament the issue of keeping weapons out of space.[163]

On February 6, 2006, Assistant to the Russian President and Head of the Commission for Russia's involvement in the G8, Igor Shuvalov said that the government also had worked out proposals on seven additional subjects, including efforts to stem proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. [164]

On February 5, 2006, Russian Deputy Prime Minister and Defense Minister, Sergei Ivanov, announced that Russian will present a report on non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction at the Summit.[165] Ivanov stated: "We are drawing up a public report for the upcoming G8 summit to set forth our views on the situation in the non-proliferation area, including in particular countries and regions, and also Russia's approaches to the resolution of key international problems in that area... We believe that, in the observance of international agreements, there should be no exceptions for signatories, and international export control regimes should not be used as a disguise for practicing unfair competition and squeezing out rivals from the weapon and military hardware markets"[166]

On February 2, 2006, Director of the Russian Foreign Ministry Department for Security and Disarmament Issues, Anatoly Antonov, announced that the nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a priority issue to be addressed at St. Petersburg.[167] Antonov stated that: "There must be political and economic conditions that will eliminate stimuli for non-nuclear states to obtain SNT. This means developing multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle that will guarantee access to services in this field for non-nuclear countries that have voluntarily given up plans of creating their own full nuclear fuel cycle. It is of paramount importance to prevent WMD from falling into the hands of terrorists."[168] Antonov went on to state that: "Addressing the situation surrounding the Iranian and North Korean nuclear programs remains on the G8 agenda. We will continue the search for common mechanisms of dealing with these issues by political and diplomatic methods."[169] Antonov also said that: "At the G8 initiative, the Nuclear Suppliers Group is strengthening control over SNT transfers (uranium enrichment and chemical processing of spent nuclear fuel) and is developing criteria for such supplies. SNT can be used for the creation of nuclear weapons, too. This is why we will continue this work in the G8. The Group of Eight adheres to the "strategy of restraint", adopted at Sea Island and reaffirmed at Gleneagles, while developing SNT transfer rules in a multilateral format. In other words, G8 member countries will not come up with new initiatives for a transfer of SNT to countries that don't have them." [170] Regarding biological threats, Antonov stated that: "for nonproliferation problems, our plans include a joint inventory of international forums and mechanisms as well as their efforts to ensure biological security. We are also preparing a Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention Review Conference this year."[171]

On February 2, 2006, Anatoly Antonov, director of the Russian Foreign Ministry's Security and Disarmament Department noted that: "The non-proliferation agenda includes a joint inventory of international mechanisms and efforts to ensure biological security. We are preparing a follow-up conference on the convention on the prohibition of biological weapons."[172]

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North Korea

On May 23, 2006, Japanese foreign minister Taro Aso said that the G8 Summit should discuss North Korea's nuclear issue and its problem with abducting foreign nationals. [173] Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov said that the Russian Federation will respond to the Japanese request.[174] On June 6, 2006, the US announced that they support discussing North Korean abductions, and Japan has also garnered support from the ambassadors of 18 countries as well as the European Union.[175]

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Crisis Management

On March 1, 2006, President Putin's article "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsibility" was published.[176] On education , he stated that: "And certainly, as before, our efforts will remain focused on the settlement of regional conflicts , primarily in the Middle East and in Iraq, and on stabilizing the situation in Afghanistan." [177]

In the Address by Russian President Vladimir Putin to visitors to the official site of Russia's G8 Presidency in 2006, Putin stated: "Other major international issues we will concentrate on during Russia's Presidency are counterterrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the settlement of regional conflicts, the development of the global economy, finance and trade, as well as protection of the environment."[178]

The Russian presidency will take up issues discussed at the 2005 Gleneagles summit, specifically terrorism, the health sector (including AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria), non-proliferation, crisis management for conflicts, and aid to developing countries. For development aid, Putin will move away from Africa to emphasize the situation in the former Soviet states.[179]

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Middle East

On April 22, 2006, deputy director of the Russian Foreign Ministry's Middle East and North Africa department, Oleg Ozerov, said that Iraqis must decide on the composition of their national government themselves , but that world support is also required.[180] Ozerov stated that "We shall discuss the issue with our G8 partners in the course of preparations for the summit and we hope that by the summit we shall find unified platforms in order to consolidate our positions."[181]

On April 21, 2006, at a conference in Mosvow entitled "Global Security and the G8: Challenges and Interests on the Way to the St. Petersburg Summit," Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Segei Kislyak stated that "issues of Iran's nuclear programme will remain on the agenda of the G8É I cannot foretell what the G8 will say on this matter, but I am sure that debate will be prolonged and serious."[182]

On March 1, 2006, President Putin's article "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsibility" was published.[183] On education , he stated that: "And certainly, as before, our efforts will remain focused on the settlement of regional conflicts , primarily in the Middle East and in Iraq, and on stabilizing the situation in Afghanistan ." [184]

On March 1, 2006, in an interview with Russian Mayak Radio, President Putin stated that: "there are certainly pressing matters on the international agenda. I am certain that we will have to accord attention to developments in the Middle East, in Iraq."[185]

On January 31, 2006, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov announced that Russia will use its G8 presidency to help Afghanistan.[186] Lavrov stated that: "We intend to use our G8 presidency to help the Afghan leadership achieve peace, democracy, stability and economic prosperity and to boost the relevant efforts of the donor community." [187] Lavrov also said that Russia will help President Karzai attain Afghan goals.[188]

One facet of crisis management during the Russian presidency may be peace-building in the Middle East.[189]

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Counterfeit Goods

On February 6, 2006, Assistant to the Russian President and Head of the Commission for Russia's involvement in the G8, Igor Shuvalov said that the government also had worked out proposals on seven additional subjects, includingÉ measures to combat counterfeiters. [190]

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Military Proposals

On March 6, 2006, Russian Army General and Air Force commander-in-chief Vladimir Mikhaylov stated the St. Petersburg G8 Summit will discuss the issue of whether or not to allow NATO to use Russian military transport aviation. [191] Mikhaylov stated that "We have received a proposal from NATO to use our big and powerful military transport fleet to carry various cargo for the allianceÉ I'm sure that during the G8 summit in St Petersburg the issue will be somehow settled. The Russian Air Forces are ready for such service."[192]

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Russia

On May 23, 2006, Igor Shuvalov stated that The Russian government does not anticipate that Russian democracy will be on the G8 agenda.[193] Shuvalov stated "I don't think this issue will be raised. When the G8 leaders speak with Putin, they understand perfectly what the Russian president is doing."[194]

On May 21, 2006, German Deputy Finance Minister Thomas Mirow stated that the increasing role of the Russian state in the economy may be discussed at the Summit.[195]

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G8 Outreach

President Putin has invited the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, to take part in the G8 Summit.[196] Nazarbayev will represent the CIS as chairman-in-office.[197] The President of South Africa, Thabo Mbeki, has been invited to attend the G8 Summit.[198] On April 4, 2006, President Putin invited Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva to attend the G8 Summit.[199] The invitation was delivered to Lula by Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov.[200] China has been invited to attend the summit. [201] Mexico has been invited to the summit.[202] India will attend the G8 Summit.[203] The head of the WHO has been invited to attend the summit.[204] The head of UNESCO has been invited to the summit.[205] Igor Shuvalov, the Russian sherpa, stated that the preliminary negotiations will be held with the invited leaders, "but they will not be shown final documents of the summit. They will just be informed of major guidelines."[206]

The following International Organizations will attend the Summit: (1) Commission of the African Union, Chairperson Alpha Oumar Konare; (2) CIS, Chairman-in-office Nursultan Nazarbayev; (3) International Energy Agency, Executive Director Claude Mandil; (4) International Atomic Energy Agency, Director-General Mohammed ElBaradei; (5) UNESCO, Director-General Koēchiro Matsuura; (6) World Health Organization, Acting Director-General Dr. Anders Nordström; (7) United Nations, Secretary-General Kofi Annan.

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General Preparations

According to General Vladimir Mikhailov, Russia's air force will close the airspace over St. Petersburg during the summit "In order to prevent any acts of terrorism in the air and other incidents, the airspace above Saint Petersburg will be closed.... Jet fighters will monitor the airspace along with ground-based radars."[207] Alexander Alyabev, a spokesman for the emergency situations ministry in St. Petersburg, stated that the waterways through the city, including the Neva and the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea will be closed to navigation from July 13-18.[208]

On February 6, 2006, Assistant to the Russian President and Head of the Commission for Russia's involvement in the G8, Igor Shuvalov, told the State Duma that Russia has drafted the first documents for the main topics to be discussed at the Summit in July.[209] The drafts will be issued to G8 Deputy Finance Ministers and discussed at that level.[210]

On February 6, Igor Shuvalov noted that discussions of the Russian priority issues are proceeding smoothly.[211] Shuvalov told the State Duma that: "We have prepared and submitted for preliminary debate, a set of documents on three priority themes proposed by Russia for discussion in the G8. And we suggest examining seven more items."[212] He stated that the priority topics of energy security, infectious disease and education and that Russia has already come up with proposals regarding strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime, combating international terrorism and preventing counterfeiting.[213] He also noted that: "Corresponding work is already under way in ministries and departments with 50-60 events due to be conducted this year."[214]

On February 1, 2006, head of the Russian presidential administrative department, Vladimir Kozhin, stated that approximately 7 billion Roubles has been allocated to the G8 summit on July 15-17, 2006, to be held in Strelna. [215] Preparation for the summit includes a new one-storey building on the territory of the Palace of Congresses, the reconstruction of the Baltic Star Hotel, landscaping in Konstantinovskiy Park, renovations for 20 VIP guest cottages in the consul village, and the creation of a 20,000 square mile pavilion near the press center. [216]

On December 15, 2005, a meeting of the Government of the Russian Federation instructed that: "The Ministry of Health and Social Development, Ministry of Education and Science and Ministry of Industry and Energy in conjunction with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and with the participation of other interested federal executive bodies and the Russian Academy of Sciences finalize the content filling of the priority themes of the Russian Federation"s Group of Eight Presidency in 2006, and ensure before January 20, 2006 the preparation of drafts of outcome documents of the summit."[217] It was also instructed that: "The Ministry of Foreign Affairs jointly with interested federal executive bodies make more precise the list of principal Group of Eight activities for the year 2006 and submit it with an appropriate draft order to the Government."[218] Next, it was instructed that: "The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Health and Social Development, Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Industry and Energy submit proposals to the Government on additional financing for the participation of Russia in international organizations and funds in the context of the Russian Federation"s Group of Eight President in 2006."[219] Finally, it was instructed that: "The Ministry of Health and Social Development, Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Industry and Energy in conjunction with the Ministry of Justice work through the question of the advisability of amending some Government acts in light of the implementation of the initiatives of the Russian Federation's Group of Eight Presidency in 2006, and if necessary, submit their coordinated proposals to the Government of the Russian Federation."[220]

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Notes

[1] BBC News Online (June 6, 2006), "PM praises business pledge on CO2."

[2] Reuters News (June 6, 2006), "Brazil to show off biofuels at G8 summit in July."

[3] ITAR-TASS World Service (May 17, 2006), "Itar-Tass Russia, CIS summary for Tuesday, May 16=1."

[4] Neil Buckley (May 17, 2006), "Russia's G8 energy hopes," Financial Times.

[5] WPS: What the Papers Say (April 13, 2006), "Exporters and importers of energy resources will debate industry issues at the Russian Economic Forum in London An interview with Mikhail Margelov, Federation Council international affairs committee chairman."

[6] Jennifer Campbell (April 12, 2006), "G8 Priorities," Ottawa Citizen.

[7] Jennifer Campbell (April 12, 2006), "G8 Priorities," Ottawa Citizen.

[8] A&G Information Services: Comtex (March 20, 2006), "Russia suggests adoption of a strategy of global energy safety at the summit of G8."

[9] Kohei Murayama (March 15, 2006), "G8 leaders eye int'l centers for nuclear fuel cycle," Kyodo News.

[10] Kohei Murayama (March 15, 2006), "G8 leaders eye int'l centers for nuclear fuel cycle," Kyodo News.

[11] Kohei Murayama (March 15, 2006), "G8 leaders eye int'l centers for nuclear fuel cycle," Kyodo News.

[12] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[13] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[14] Press Conference with Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "Excerpts of answers following the president's statement on the St Petersburg Summit," <www.g8.utoronto.ca/whatsnew/putin-int060301.html>.

[15] Press Conference with Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "Excerpts of answers following the president's statement on the St Petersburg Summit," <www.g8.utoronto.ca/whatsnew/putin-int060301.html>.

[16] Russian TV, BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union (March 1, 2006), "Putin urges G8 to tackle energy, bird flu, education issues."

[17] RIA Novosti (February 28, 2006), "Russia to propose nuclear licensing centres at G8 summit."

[18] RIA Novosti (February 28, 2006), "Russia to propose nuclear licensing centres at G8 summit."

[19] RIA Novosti (March 3, 2006), "International relations in transitional phase ' minister."

[20] RIA Novosti (March 3, 2006), "International relations in transitional phase ' minister."

[21] RIA Novosti (March 3, 2006), "International relations in transitional phase ' minister."

[22] RIA Novosti (March 3, 2006), "International relations in transitional phase ' minister."

[23] RosBusinessConsulting (January 25, 2006), "Putin on uranium enrichment."

[24] RosBusinessConsulting (January 25, 2006), "Putin on uranium enrichment."

[25] Official Website of the G8 Presidency of the Russian Federation in 2006, "Address by Russian President Vladimir Putin to visitors to the official site of Russia's G8 Presidency in 2006," accessed January 23, 2006. <http://en.g8russia.ru/agenda/>.

[26] Official Website of the G8 Presidency of the Russian Federation in 2006, "Energy Security: The Problem," accessed January 23, 2006. <http://en.g8russia.ru/agenda/nrgsafety/problem/>.

[27] Official Website of the G8 presidency of the Russian Federation in 2006, "Energy Security: Russia's Position and Role," accessed January 23, 2006. <http://en.g8russia.ru/agenda/nrgsafety/russianrole/>.

[28] Official Website of the G8 presidency of the Russian Federation in 2006, "Energy Security: Russia's Position and Role," accessed January 23, 2006. <http://en.g8russia.ru/agenda/nrgsafety/russianrole/>.

[29] Official Website of the G8 presidency of the Russian Federation in 2006, "Energy Security: Russia's Position and Role," accessed January 23, 2006. <http://en.g8russia.ru/agenda/nrgsafety/russianrole/>.

[30] Official Website of the G8 presidency of the Russian Federation in 2006, "Energy Security: Russia's Position and Role," accessed January 23, 2006. <http://en.g8russia.ru/agenda/nrgsafety/russianrole/>.

[31] Official Website of the G8 presidency of the Russian Federation in 2006, "Energy Security: Russia's Position and Role," accessed January 23, 2006. <http://en.g8russia.ru/agenda/nrgsafety/russianrole/>.

[32] President Putin (July 8, 2005), "Meeting of Vladimir Putin with Russian and Foreign Media Following the G8 Summit." <www.g7.utoronto.ca/summit/2005gleneagles/putin-050708.html >.

[33] RIA Novosty (February 2, 2006), "Russia drafts nuclear energy proposals for G8 summit."

[34] RIA Novosty (February 2, 2006), "Russia drafts nuclear energy proposals for G8 summit."

[35] Interfax News Service (February 1, 2006), "Deal on ITER should be signed during G8 summit."

[36] RIA Novosty (January 11, 2006), "Russian, German finance ministers discuss G8 ministerial meeting."

[37] RIA Novosti (January 11, 2006), "Finance minister says Russia wants G8 action plan on energy supplies."

[38] RIA Novosti (January 11m 2006), "Russian minister hints at agenda for G8 summit."

[39] Financial Times (January 4, 2006), "Elements of Moscow's Group of Eight Agenda."

[40] Hirando, Ko. (January 4, 2006), "G8 Tackles Bird Flu, Deforestation, Education Issues in 2006," Kyodo News.

[41] Interfax News Service (January 13, 2006), "Russia to put environment in focus at G8."

[42] Interfax News Service (January 13, 2006), "Russia to put environment in focus at G8."

[43] Dow Jones International News (May 17, 2006), "Russia Govt Urged To Get On With HIV Vaccine Center Plans."

[44] Nikolai Krupenik (May 22, 2006), "Russia to present new anti-HIV vaccine centre at G8 summit," ITAR-TASS World Service.

[45] RIA Novosti (April 12, 2006), "Russia's chief doctor wants infectious diseases high on G8 agenda."

[46] Jennifer Campbell (April 12, 2006), "G8 Priorities," Ottawa Citizen.

[47] Jennifer Campbell (April 12, 2006), "G8 Priorities," Ottawa Citizen.

[48] RIA Novosti (April 12, 2006), "Russia's chief doctor wants infectious diseases high on G8 agenda."

[49] RIA Novosti (April 12, 2006), "Russia's chief doctor wants infectious diseases high on G8 agenda."

[50] Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies (March 27, 2006), "G8 Summit to consider bird flu prophylaxis."

[51] Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies (March 27, 2006), "G8 Summit to consider bird flu prophylaxis."

[52] Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies (March 27, 2006), "G8 Summit to consider bird flu prophylaxis."

[53] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[54] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[55] Press Conference with Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "Excerpts of answers following the president's statement on the St Petersburg Summit," <www.g8.utoronto.ca/whatsnew/putin-int060301.html>.

[56] Russian TV, BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union (March 1, 2006), "Putin urges G8 to tackle energy, bird flu, education issues."

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[60] Frolkina, Tamara and Irina Shatalova (February 3, 2006), "Russia to offer plan of actions for bird flu fight," Itar-Tass World Service.

[61] Hirando, Ko. (January 4, 2006), "G8 Tackles Bird Flu, Deforestation, Education Issues in 2006," Kyodo News.

[62] Financial Times (January 4, 2006), "Elements of Moscow's Group of Eight Agenda."

[63] RIA Novosty (January 11, 2006), "Russian, German finance ministers discuss G8 ministerial meeting."

[64] Politicom Moldova (January 3, 2006), "Russian Federation assumes G8 Presidency in 2006."

[65] Financial Times (January 4, 2006), "Elements of Moscow's Group of Eight Agenda."

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[68] RIA Novosty (February 2, 2006), "Russia to allocate $46 million to fight bird flu ' minister."

[69] RIA Novosty (February 2, 2006), "Russia to allocate $46 million to fight bird flu ' minister."

[70] RIA Novosty (February 2, 2006), "Russia to allocate $46 million to fight bird flu ' minister."

[71] RIA Novosty (January 27, 2006), "Russian gov't to adopt bird flu resolution "within days" ' PM."

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[74] Hirando, Ko. (January 4, 2006), "G8 Tackles Bird Flu, Deforestation, Education Issues in 2006," Kyodo News.

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[78] Jennifer Campbell (April 12, 2006), "G8 Priorities," Ottawa Citizen.

[79] Jennifer Campbell (April 12, 2006), "G8 Priorities," Ottawa Citizen.

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[81] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

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[84] Russian Mayak radio, BBC Monitoring Newsfile (March 1, 2006), "Agenda for G8 presidency includes war on terror, Middle East ' Putin."

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[94] Official Website of the G8 presidency of the Russian Federation in 2006, "Education: Russia's Position and Role," accessed January 23, 2006. <http://en.g8russia.ru/agenda/education/russianrole/>.

[95] President Putin (July 8, 2005), "Meeting of Vladimir Putin with Russian and Foreign Media Following the G8 Summit." <www.g7.utoronto.ca/summit/2005gleneagles/putin-050708.html >.

[96] Dow Jones International News (March 1, 2006), "Putin Says Education Key to Combatting Extremism."

[97] Dow Jones International News (March 1, 2006), "Putin Says Education Key to Combatting Extremism."

[98] RIA Novosty (January 19, 2006), "Russia to propose education initiatives at G8 Summit."

[99] RIA Novosty (January 19, 2006), "Russia to propose education initiatives at G8 Summit."

[100] RIA Novosty (January 11, 2006), "Russian, German finance ministers discuss G8 ministerial meeting."

[101] Kirsanov, Dmitry (December 6, 2005), "G8 Education Ministers to Meet in Russia Ahead of Summit," Itar-Tass.

[102] Interfax News Service (December 16, 2005), "Russia May Unveil New Manager Training Program at G8 Summit."

[103] Interfax News Service (December 16, 2005), "Russia May Unveil New Manager Training Program at G8 Summit."

[104] Hirando, Ko. (January 4, 2006), "G8 Tackles Bird Flu, Deforestation, Education Issues in 2006," Kyodo News.

[105] Hirando, Ko. (January 4, 2006), "G8 Tackles Bird Flu, Deforestation, Education Issues in 2006," Kyodo News.

[106] Hirando, Ko. (January 4, 2006), "G8 Tackles Bird Flu, Deforestation, Education Issues in 2006," Kyodo News.

[107] Official Website of the G8 presidency of the Russian Federation in 2006, "Education: Russia's Position and Role," accessed January 23, 2006. <http://en.g8russia.ru/agenda/education/russianrole/>.

[108] President Putin (July 8, 2005), "Meeting of Vladimir Putin with Russian and Foreign Media Following the G8 Summit." <www.g7.utoronto.ca/summit/2005gleneagles/putin-050708.html >.

[109] RIA Novosty (January 19, 2006), "Russia to propose education initiatives at G8 Summit."

[110] Financial Times (January 4, 2006), "Elements of Moscow's Group of Eight Agenda."

[111] RIA Novosti (June 6, 2006), "Russia to write off $700m in poor countries debt in 2006—Kudrin."

[112] Reuters News (June 6, 2006), "Brazil to show off biofuels at G8 summit in July."

[113] BelaPAN (May 17, 2006), "Belarus' situation not placed on G8 summit agenda, Russian president's aid says."

[114] BelaPAN (May 17, 2006), "Belarus' situation not placed on G8 summit agenda, Russian president's aid says."

[115] BelaPAN (May 17, 2006), "Belarus' situation not placed on G8 summit agenda, Russian president's aid says."

[116] Agence France Presse (April 23, 2006), "Kremlin dilemma as split with US on Iran widens."

[117] WPS: What the Papers Say (April 17, 2006), "Russia is prepared to help not only the poor but also the rich Russia is going to increase aid to the poorest countries of the world."

[118] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[119] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[120] President Putin (July 8, 2005), "Meeting of Vladimir Putin with Russian and Foreign Media Following the G8 Summit." <www.g7.utoronto.ca/summit/2005gleneagles/putin-050708.html >.

[121] RIA Novosti (February 13, 2006), "URGENT: Part of H8 aid to poor countries should be given to CIS -  Putin."

[122] Prime-TASS News (February 7, 2006), "Russia's Putin says G8 objective to aid developing countries."

[123] Prime-TASS News (February 7, 2006), "Russia's Putin says G8 objective to aid developing countries."

[124] Hirando, Ko. (January 4, 2006), "G8 Tackles Bird Flu, Deforestation, Education Issues in 2006," Kyodo News.

[125] Financial Times (January 4, 2006), "Elements of Moscow's Group of Eight Agenda."

[126] Politicom Moldova (January 3, 2006), "Russian Federation assumes G8 Presidency in 2006."

[127] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[128] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[129] Official Website of the G8 Presidency of the Russian Federation in 2006, "Address by Russian President Vladimir Putin to visitors to the official site of Russia's G8 Presidency in 2006," accessed January 23, 2006. <http://en.g8russia.ru/agenda/>.

[130] President Putin (July 8, 2005), "Meeting of Vladimir Putin with Russian and Foreign Media Following the G8 Summit." <www.g7.utoronto.ca/summit/2005gleneagles/putin-050708.html >.

[131] Hirando, Ko. (January 4, 2006), "G8 Tackles Bird Flu, Deforestation, Education Issues in 2006," Kyodo News.

[132] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[133] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[134] Official Website of the G8 Presidency of the Russian Federation in 2006, "Address by Russian President Vladimir Putin to visitors to the official site of Russia's G8 Presidency in 2006," accessed January 23, 2006. <http://en.g8russia.ru/agenda/>.

[135] Associated Press (February 6, 2006), "Russia adds WMD, terrorism to agenda for Group of Eight summit."

[136] Hirando, Ko. (January 4, 2006), "G8 Tackles Bird Flu, Deforestation, Education Issues in 2006," Kyodo News.

[137] Hirando, Ko. (January 4, 2006), "G8 Tackles Bird Flu, Deforestation, Education Issues in 2006," Kyodo News.

[138] Hirando, Ko. (January 4, 2006), "G8 Tackles Bird Flu, Deforestation, Education Issues in 2006," Kyodo News.

[139] Interfax News Service (January 13, 2006), "Russia to put environment in focus at G8."

[140] Interfax News Service (January 13, 2006), "Russia to put environment in focus at G8."

[141] Interfax News Service (January 13, 2006), "Russia to put environment in focus at G8."

[142] Larisa Sayenko (March 30, 2006), "Russia says it will propose new counter-terrorism measures to G8," RIA Novosty

[143] Larisa Sayenko (March 30, 2006), "Russia says it will propose new counter-terrorism measures to G8," RIA Novosty

[144] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[145] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[146] Russian Mayak radio, BBC Monitoring Newsfile (March 1, 2006), "Agenda for G8 presidency includes war on terror, Middle East ' Putin."

[147] Official Website of the G8 Presidency of the Russian Federation in 2006, "Address by Russian President Vladimir Putin to visitors to the official site of Russia's G8 Presidency in 2006," accessed January 23, 2006. <http://en.g8russia.ru/agenda/>.

[148] Associated Press (February 6, 2006), "Russia adds WMD, terrorism to agenda for Group of Eight summit."

[149] President Putin (July 8, 2005), "Meeting of Vladimir Putin with Russian and Foreign Media Following the G8 Summit." <www.g7.utoronto.ca/summit/2005gleneagles/putin-050708.html >.

[150] Hirando, Ko. (January 4, 2006), "G8 Tackles Bird Flu, Deforestation, Education Issues in 2006," Kyodo News.

[151] BelaPAN (May 17, 2006), "Belarus' situation not placed on G8 summit agenda, Russian president's aid says."

[152] BelaPAN (May 17, 2006), "Belarus' situation not placed on G8 summit agenda, Russian president's aid says."

[153] WPS: Defense and Security (April 12, 2006), "Moscow is out to compile its own blacklist."

[154] WPS: Defense and Security (April 12, 2006), "Moscow is out to compile its own blacklist."

[155] WPS: Defense and Security (April 12, 2006), "Moscow is out to compile its own blacklist."

[156] Vitaly Chugin (April 21, 2006), "Non-proliferation to be written large on G8 summit agenda," ITAR-TASS World Service.

[157] Vitaly Chugin (April 21, 2006), "Non-proliferation to be written large on G8 summit agenda," ITAR-TASS World Service.

[158] Vitaly Chugin (April 21, 2006), "Non-proliferation to be written large on G8 summit agenda," ITAR-TASS World Service.

[159] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[160] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[161] Russian Mayak radio, BBC Monitoring Newsfile (March 1, 2006), "Agenda for G8 presidency includes war on terror, Middle East ' Putin."

[162] Official Website of the G8 Presidency of the Russian Federation in 2006, "Address by Russian President Vladimir Putin to visitors to the official site of Russia's G8 Presidency in 2006," accessed January 23, 2006. <http://en.g8russia.ru/agenda/>.

[163] Associated Press (February 6, 2006), "Russia adds WMD, terrorism to agenda for Group of Eight summit."

[164] Associated Press (February 6, 2006), "Russia adds WMD, terrorism to agenda for Group of Eight summit."

[165] Interfax News Service (February 5, 2006), "Russia to report on WMD non-proliferation at G8 summit."

[166] Interfax News Service (February 5, 2006), "Russia to report on WMD non-proliferation at G8 summit."

[167] Federal News Service (February 2, 2006), "Interview with Anatoly Antonov, Director of the Foreign Ministry Department for Security and Disarmament Issues."

[168] Federal News Service (February 2, 2006), "Interview with Anatoly Antonov, Director of the Foreign Ministry Department for Security and Disarmament Issues."

[169] Federal News Service (February 2, 2006), "Interview with Anatoly Antonov, Director of the Foreign Ministry Department for Security and Disarmament Issues."

[170] Federal News Service (February 2, 2006), "Interview with Anatoly Antonov, Director of the Foreign Ministry Department for Security and Disarmament Issues."

[171] Federal News Service (February 2, 2006), "Interview with Anatoly Antonov, Director of the Foreign Ministry Department for Security and Disarmament Issues."

[172] RIA Novosty (March 31, 2006), "Nonproliferation: A priority of Russia's G8 Presidency."

[173] Jiji Press English News Service (May 23, 2006), "Japan Aso Seeks Talks on N. Korea's Abductions at G-8 Summit."

[174] Jiji Press English News Service (May 23, 2006), "Japan Aso Seeks Talks on N. Korea's Abductions at G-8 Summit."

[175] Dow Jones International News (June 6, 2006), "Japan: Envoys Support Raising N Korea Abductions at Summit."

[176] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[177] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[178] Official Website of the G8 Presidency of the Russian Federation in 2006, "Address by Russian President Vladimir Putin to visitors to the official site of Russia's G8 Presidency in 2006," accessed January 23, 2006. <http://en.g8russia.ru/agenda/>.

[179] Politicom Moldova (January 3, 2006), "Russian Federation assumes G8 Presidency in 2006."

[180] BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union (April 22, 2006), "Russian Foreign Ministry outlines priorities in policy on Hamas and Iraq."

[181] BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union (April 22, 2006), "Russian Foreign Ministry outlines priorities in policy on Hamas and Iraq."

[182] Alexander Konovalov and German Solomatin (April 21, 2006), "Iran should cooperate with IARA ' Russia deputy foreign minister," ITAR-TASS World Service.

[183] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[184] Vladimir Putin (March 1, 2006), "The Upcoming G8 Summit in St. Petersburg: Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsbility."

[185] Russian Mayak radio, BBC Monitoring Newsfile (March 1, 2006), "Agenda for G8 presidency includes war on terror, Middle East ' Putin."

[186] RIA Novostry (January 31, 2006), "Russia to help Afghanistan during G8 presidency ' Lavrov."

[187] RIA Novostry (January 31, 2006), "Russia to help Afghanistan during G8 presidency ' Lavrov."

[188] RIA Novostry (January 31, 2006), "Russia to help Afghanistan during G8 presidency ' Lavrov."

[189] Hirando, Ko. (January 4, 2006), "G8 Tackles Bird Flu, Deforestation, Education Issues in 2006," Kyodo News.

[190] Associated Press (February 6, 2006), "Russia adds WMD, terrorism to agenda for Group of Eight summit."

[191] BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union (April 15, 2006), "Russia: St. Petersburg media highlights 27 Mar ' 2 Apr 06."

[192] BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union (April 15, 2006), "Russia: St. Petersburg media highlights 27 Mar ' 2 Apr 06."

[193] AFX Asia (May 23, 2006), "Russia's democracy not on G8 agenda ' Kremlin."

[194] AFX Asia (May 23, 2006), "Russia's democracy not on G8 agenda ' Kremlin."

[195] Reuters News (May 21, 2006), "UPDATE 1 ' Germany says role of Russian state is topic for G8."

[196] Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies (May 27, 2006), "Lecture of the President."

[197] Veronika Romanenkova (May 16, 2006), "Nazarbayev invited to G8 summit as CIS chairman ' Shuvalov," Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies.

[198] Financial Mail (May 12, 2006), "Financial Mail: Nigeria. Bribe if the law doesn't suit you."

[199] Xinhua News Agency (April 5, 2006), "Putin invites Brazilian president to attend G8 summit."

[200] Xinhua News Agency (April 5, 2006), "Putin invites Brazilian president to attend G8 summit."

[201] Frank Ching (March 30, 2006), "Looking elsewhere in China's Year of Russia," New Straits Times.

[202] Official Website of the G8 Presidency (April 11, 2006), "Senior Russian official on Mexico's participation in G8 summit" < http://en.g8russia.ru/news/20060411/1147351.html>.

[203] Official Website of the G8 Presidency (March 17, 2006), "Indian premier thanks Russian president for G8 invitation, praises nuclear cooperation," <http://en.g8russia.ru/news/20060317/1145894.html>.

[204] Official Website of the G8 Presidency (March 23, 2006), "Russia invites WHO head to G8 summit in St. Petersburg," <http://en.g8russia.ru/news/20060323/1146372.html>.

[205] Veronika Romanenkova (May 16, 2006), "Nazarbayev invited to G8 summit as CIS chairman ' Shuvalov," Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies.

[206] Veronika Romanenkova (May 16, 2006), "Nazarbayev invited to G8 summit as CIS chairman ' Shuvalov," Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies.

[207] Agence France Presse (May 19, 2006), "Russian air force gears up for G8 summit."

[208] Agence France Presse (May 22, 2006), "Saint Petersburg waterways to be shut during G8 summit."

[209] RosBusinessConsulting (February 6, 2006), "Fully-fledged preparation for G8 in progress."

[210] RosBusinessConsulting (February 6, 2006), "Fully-fledged preparation for G8 in progress."

[211] Interfax News Service (February 6, 2006), "Kremlin: Dialogue on Russian G8 priorities proceed smoothly."

[212] Interfax News Service (February 6, 2006), "Kremlin: Dialogue on Russian G8 priorities proceed smoothly."

[213] Interfax News Service (February 6, 2006), "Kremlin: Dialogue on Russian G8 priorities proceed smoothly."

[214] Interfax News Service (February 6, 2006), "Kremlin: Dialogue on Russian G8 priorities proceed smoothly."

[215] SKRIN Russia (February 1, 2006), "RUR7bln allocated for G8 summit from federal budget."

[216] SKRIN Russia (February 1, 2006), "RUR7bln allocated for G8 summit from federal budget."

[217] SKRIN, Russia (January 27, 2006), "Government prepares to Russian Federation's Presidency of Group of Eight in 2006."

[218] SKRIN, Russia (January 27, 2006), "Government prepares to Russian Federation's Presidency of Group of Eight in 2006."

[219] SKRIN, Russia (January 27, 2006), "Government prepares to Russian Federation's Presidency of Group of Eight in 2006."

[220] SKRIN, Russia (January 27, 2006), "Government prepares to Russian Federation's Presidency of Group of Eight in 2006."

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