Data Sets

Back to Introduction to G7/G8 Summit Commitments, 1975–2006

Appendix B
List of Individual Commitments
Cycle 4, 1996–2002

1996 Lyon, France
1997 Denver, U.S.
1998 Birmingham, UK
1999 Köln, Germany
2000 Okinawa, Japan
2001 Genoa, Italy
2002 Kananaskis, Canada

1996 Lyon, France (128 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (59 commitments)

Strengthening Economic and Monetary Cooperation

While recognizing that our individual circumstances may vary, we share a common commitment to a medium-term economic strategy:

1996-1. credible fiscal consolidation programs

1996-2. successful anti-inflationary policies and as a consequence low interest rates, and

1996-3. strengthened structural reform.

1996-4. These should contribute to investment, growth and job creation.

1996-5. Such policies will contribute to reducing external imbalances, thereby promoting international monetary stability and maintaining the conditions for harmonious growth in global trade and business.

1996-6. We endorse the views of our Ministers of Finance on international monetary stability. We request our Ministers of Finance to continue to cooperate closely on economic policy and in the exchange markets.

1996-7. In this connection, we attach importance to the implementation of improved practical measures to deal with risks relating to the operation of the global financial markets and we request our Ministers to report to the next Summit on this issue.

Over the year ahead, we should seek to make maximum progress on the following objectives :

1996-8. enhancing cooperation among the authorities responsible for the supervision of internationally-active financial institutions, importantly by clarifying their roles and responsibilities;

1996-9. encouraging stronger risk management and improved transparency in the markets and connected activities, especially in the innovative markets ;

1996-10. encouraging the adoption of strong prudential standards in emerging economies and increasing cooperation with their supervisory authorities ;

1996-11. We ask our Finance Ministers in consultation with the relevant institutions to report back on this issue at our next meeting ;

1996-12. studying the implications of the recent technological advances which make possible the creation of sophisticated methods for retail electronic payments and how to ensure their benefits are fully realized.

1996-13. Together with the international community as a whole, we undertake to ensure that the IMF has the resources needed to perform its tasks in the service of international monetary stability.

1996-14. As we recognized last year, international financial fraud is a growing problem for our financial systems. In order to strengthen the fight against this phenomenon, we will continue to look for ways of facilitating, as much as possible, the exchange of information on cases involving serious financial crime and regulatory abuse between law enforcement agencies and regulatory bodies, in accordance with our own domestic legal systems and other basic principles.

1996-15. We intend to maintain our dialogue to review progress and developments in this field.

1996-16. Finally, globalization is creating new challenges in the field of tax policy. We strongly urge the OECD to vigorously pursue its work in this field, aimed at establishing a multilateral approach under which countries could operate individually and collectively to limit the extent of these practices.

1996-17. We will follow closely the progress on work by the OECD, which is due to produce a report by 1998.

1996-18. We will also follow closely the OECD’s continuation of its important work on transfer pricing, where we warmly endorse the significant progress that the OECD has already achieved.

1996-19. In order to face the challenges of economic and fiscal impact of aging populations, we remain committed to ensuring sustainability of our social security system.

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Promoting Strong and Mutually Beneficial Growth of Trade and Investment

1996-20. We give high priority to achieving a multilateral agreement on investment in the OECD that provides high standards of investment protection and liberalization, with effective dispute settlement.

1996-21. We look forward to the successful completion of these negotiations by June 1997.

1996-22. We reaffirm our commitment to working to strengthen the confidence in and credibility of the multilateral trading system by avoiding taking trade and investment measures that would be in contradiction with WTO rules and OECD codes, and by using and complying with any applicable provisions for consultation and dispute settlement when differences arise.

1996-23. We will continue to monitor the strict implementation of commitments and precise compliance with timetables agreed at the end of the Uruguay Round.

1996-24. In accordance with the rules of the World Trade Organization and on the basis of significant liberalization commitments, we support the accession of new members to the WTO.

1996-25. We have agreed on ways to help developing countries, especially the least developed, to benefit more fully from the results of the Uruguay Round.

1996-26. Together with our partners we will work for the success of the first ministerial conference of the WTO in December 1996.

1996-27. We will ensure full and effective implementation of the Uruguay Round results according to the agreed timetables.

1996-28. We are resolved to complete all ongoing negotiations in the service sector and to relaunch talks in Singapore on financial services so as to reach significant, balanced and non-discriminatory liberalization commitments by December 1997.

1996-29. In order to facilitate the free flow of trade, we will initiate an effort to further standardize and simplify customs procedures among our countries.

1996-30. Lastly, we are resolved to combat corruption in international business transactions, which is detrimental to transparency and fairness and imposes heavy economic and political costs.

1996-31. Looking ahead beyond the Singapore Ministerial Conference and recognizing that our next meeting will take place on the eve of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the multilateral trading system, we are committed to working together with our partners to give sustained impetus to trade liberalization.

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Enhancing Our Approach to Employment Problems

1996-32. We seek to enhance the effectiveness of policies aimed at stimulating growth and jobs. This requires action in a wide range of structural policies, within a framework of sound macro-economic policies.

We welcome the conclusions reached by the Ministerial Conference on Employment in Lille, and we have agreed to pursue the following policies :

1996-33. We reaffirm our belief that investment in people is as vital as investment in capital. We will therefore pay special attention to a sound basic education, skill formation and training, which is a lifelong undertaking, and to improving the transition from school to work.

1996-34. We are determined to prevent and fight against social exclusion. We must define ways to reinforce people’s employability throughout their working lives by facilitating the transition from one job to another.

1996-35. We pledge to carry out practical reforms, consistent with the specific situation in each of our countries, aimed at achieving a high level of employment and widely-shared prosperity.

1996-36. These include tax and social system reforms to ensure that "work pays," particularly for the least well-off ; lowering social security charges which place a burden on low-skilled jobs, in countries with high indirect labour costs ; and improving public employment agencies.

1996-37. In order to foster entrepreneurship we will modernize our regulatory frameworks where needed in the markets for goods and services, to enhance our economies’ ability to respond to rapid change and to encourage job creation

1996-38. We will facilitate the dissemination, notably in the direction of small and medium-sized businesses, of new technologies, which are creating plentiful, quality jobs.

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Implementing A New Global Partnership for Development: An Ambition for the 21st Century

1996-39. We renew our commitment to secure substantial flows of official aid and to improve the quality of this aid. The whole international community should be mobilized in this effort, and new donors should assume growing responsibility, so that the burden is more equally shared.

1996-40. Sub Saharan Africa continues to face unusually severe challenges. We will concentrate resources on those countries that need them most and that can use them effectively, reflecting the fact that their policy program is credible and that their Government is fully committed to implement it.

1996-41. Grants and concessional financing should be directed primarily to meet the financial requirements of the poorest countries which have no or limited access to the international capital markets, once they can demonstrate their commitment to create the conditions to use them effectively.

1996-42. Giving more explicit priority to sustainable development and the alleviation of poverty. This should mean adequate ODA funding of essential sectors such as health and education, basic infrastructures, clean water schemes, environmental conservation, micro-enterprises, agricultural research and small-scale agriculture, with for example the help of IFAD.

1996-43. We should support the establishment of a dynamic and competitive private sector in developing countries based on small and medium scale entreprises.

1996-44. We will support the LLDCs’ efforts to achieve such integration, for example, by responding favourably to requests for technical assistance in the fields of investment, privatisation and export diversification, and encouraging international organisations and programs to do likewise.

1996-45. We will implement the provisions of the Marrakech Decision on Measures in Favour of Least Developed Countries.

1996-46. In this context we will examine what each of us could do to improve their access to our markets and we encourage others to do the same, including other developing countries.

Enhancing the Effectiveness of Multilateral Institutions for the Benefit of Development

1996-47. We will work with other members to make rapid progress in the reform of the UN in order to rationalize and strengthen its role in development.

1996-48. UNCTAD IX was a major milestone in the renewal of UNCTAD. We are committed to the implementation of these reforms. The LLDC’s will be the major beneficiaries of this action.

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Providing the Necessary Multilateral Support for Development

1996-49. The replenishment of the concessional resources of the multilateral financial institutions must be completed. In this context, we stress the importance of sharing this burden equitably, we welcome the emergence of new donors and we encourage other countries to participate.

1996-50. We welcome the fact that all donors have agreed to contribute to IDA-XI and the activation of the Interim Trust Fund. This agreement will enable the Association to lend up to USD 22 billion over three years. This is a major success. It is important that all donors ensure the success of IDA-XI by fully respecting their commitments on time.

1996-51. We are committed to a continuing Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) as the centerpiece of the International Monetary Fund support for the poorest countries, and we welcome the proposals of the Managing Director of the IMF for greater concessionality in ESAF lending for a limited number of poor and highly indebted countries, as the IMF’s contribution to putting them in a sustainable position.

1996-52. We will examine constructively and positively the options for financing the needed subsidies, using primarily resources held by the IMF, without excluding bilateral contributions.

1996-53. We welcome progress achieved in the alleviation of the debt problems and the active implementation, by the Paris Club, of the Naples terms. However, for some heavily indebted poor countries, we acknowledge the need for additional action, in particular to reduce debts owing to multilateral institutions and other bilateral creditors that are not members of the Paris Club. Following the proposals developed by the Bretton Woods Institutions, we look forward to a concrete solution being agreed by next Autumn at the latest on the following basis :

1996-54. the solution should provide an exit for unsustainable debt and be based on a case by case approach adapted to the specific situation of each country concerned, once it has shown its commitment to pursuing its economic adjustment ;

1996-55. the continuation of ESAF will provide the basis for a reduction in the burden of the debt to the IMF for these countries ;

1996-56. we will support and work together for an overall World Bank contribution of the order of 2 billion $ for this initiative.

1996-57. As concerns bilateral credits, we are committed to work, in conjunction with a maximum possible contribution by the World Bank and the IMF, to achieve financial viability and debt sustainability for all these countries which undertake the necessary adjustment efforts.

1996-58. We urge the Paris Club creditor countries, where they deem appropriate, on a case by case basis, to go beyond the Naples terms for these countries. These efforts would include, on a voluntary basis, debt conversion schemes up to 20% instead of currently 10% of the stock of debts, and increased debt alleviation.

Toward Successful Integration of Countries in Transition into the Global Economy

1996-59. We welcome the Moscow Summit declaration relating to Ukraine and the commitment of President KUCHMA to close reactor n° 1 at Chernobyl by the end of 1996, in the framework of the program to close the whole plant by the year 2000. We reaffirm our commitment to full implementation of the Memorandum concluded with Ukraine, through close cooperation with this country and the international financial institutions.

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Declaration on Terrorism (7 commitments)

1996-60. We reaffirm our absolute condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, regardless of its perpetrators or motives. Terrorism is a heinous crime, and there must be no excuse or exception in bringing its perpetrators to justice.

1996-61. We proclaim our common resolve to unite our efforts and our determination to fight terrorism by all legal means.

1996-62. In keeping with the guidelines for action adopted by the Eight in Ottawa, we strongly urge all States to deny all support to terrorists.

1996-63. We rededicate ourselves and invite others to associate our efforts in order to thwart the activities of terrorists and their supporters, including fund-raising, the planning of terrorist acts, procurement of weapons, calling for violence, and incitements to commit terrorist acts.

1996-64. We consider the fight against terrorism to be our absolute priority, and reiterate the necessity for all States to adhere to the relevant international conventions.

We are resolved to do more:

1996-65. to examine and implement, in cooperation with all States, all measures liable to strengthen the capacity of the international community to defeat terrorism.

1996-66. To that end, we have decided that a ministerial meeting to consider and

Recommend further actions will be held in Paris, as early as the month of July.

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Chairman’s Statement [Political Declaration] (52 commitments)

United Nations

1996-67. We are committed to achieving early and practical results in the renewal of the UN so that, for both individuals and countries, it can more readily and effectively respond to the demands placed on it, and more clearly demonstrate its importance to the search for solutions to our globally shared problems.

1996-68. We undertake to intensify our role in the work of the high level and working groups set up by the General Assembly for this purpose in order to help ensure the balanced, timely and effective outcome of their efforts.

1996-69. We will work with other Members throughout the UN system to accomplish this goal.

1996-70. Conscious of the risks that the present financial crisis poses to the United Nations’ ability to function, we are resolved to promote in parallel and as soon as possible a long-term solution based on the adoption of a more equitable scale of contributions, on scrupulous respect by Member States for their financial obligations, and on the payment of arrears.

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Human Rights, Democratic Processes and Humanitarian Emergencies

1996-71. We reaffirm our support for the High Commissioner for Human Rights as coordinator of human rights within the United Nations system and commend his contribution in the fields of early warning, conflict prevention and peacebuilding.

1996-72. We will take care to ensure that women as well as men benefit fully and equally from the recognition of human rights and fundamental freedoms, which were reiterated on the occasion of the Beijing Conference, and that the rights of children be respected.

1996-73. We support fully the efforts of the International Tribunals aimed at the prosecution and trial of persons indicted for serious violations of human rights in the Former Yugoslavia and in Rwanda and commit ourselves to making available to the Tribunals adequate resources for the fulfillment of their mandates.

1996-74. All over the world, we actively support the process of democratization, which is an essential guarantee of respect for human rights. We will provide assistance in the organization of free and impartial elections and in strengthening democratic institutions and standards.

1996-75. We are firmly determined to continue to provide assistance to populations in need, and we call for the coordination and rationalization of efforts in order to provide assistance more effectively.

Non-proliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament

1996-76. We affirm our undertaking to conclude a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) so as to enable its signature by the outset of the 51st session of the General Assembly of the United Nations, this coming September.

1996-77. We reaffirm our commitment to the objectives set out in the document on Principles and Objectives for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament adopted on 11 May 1995 at the conclusion of the NPT Review and Extension Conference.

1996-78. We are determined to contribute to the effectiveness of the strengthened NPT review process before the next Review Conference in 2000, the first preparatory committee for which will meet in 1997.

1996-79. We reiterate the importance we attach to the entry into force of the Convention on Chemical Weapons. We will continue to work hard to implement the Convention on Prohibition of Biological and Toxin Weapons, including the establishment of an effective verification mechanism.

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Nuclear Safety and Security

1996-80. We reaffirm our commitment, made in Moscow, to the highest internationally recognized nuclear safety level. In this regard, we underline that nuclear safety has to prevail over all other considerations.

1996-81. We reaffirm our commitment to all the principles laid down in the Convention on Nuclear Safety and we urge all countries to ratify this Convention, as soon as possible, and to participate in the peer review mechanisms.

1996-82. We remain committed to assisting countries in transition in developing efficient and fully safety-oriented energy policies.

In order to ensure rapid and efficient follow-up of the decisions regarding non-proliferation issues adopted at the Moscow Summit, we have taken the following initiatives :

1996-83. on our behalf, France will undertake demarches in order to encourage more countries to adopt the "Programme for preventing and combatting illicit trafficking in nuclear material" ;

1996-84. a meeting dedicated to the implementation of this Programme, with the participation of agencies and ministries involved in the prevention and fight against illicit trafficking will be held as soon as possible.

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Environment

1996-85. In view of the threats such as global warming, desertification, deforestation, depleting resources and threatened species, and unsustainable urban development, we place top priority on integrating environmental protection more completely into all of our policies.

1996-86. 1997 will be a pivotal year for the environment. We renew our commitment to all agreements reached at Rio, and pledge to work for a successful outcome of the 1997 special session of the United Nations General Assembly which would lead to their better implementation.

We commit ourselves to strong action and anticipate in 1997 :

1996-87. a successful outcome of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention;

1996-88. agreement on actions to promote sustainable management of forests, including appropriate implementing arrangements or instruments;

1996-89. the negotiation of a global, legally binding instrument on particular persistent organic pollutants (POPs);

1996-90. the speedy implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on Desertification.

1996-91. We will assess compliance with international environmental agreements and consider options for enhancing compliance.

Information Society

1996-92. We encourage full cooperation among countries, existing international and non-governmental organizations for the promotion of projects demonstrating their use of information and communication technology. We are committed to fostering partnership between the public and the private actor.

1996-93. We are prepared to reflect on ethical and criminal issues raised by worldwide communication networks.

1996-94. We will support public and private efforts to increase the use of information and communication technologies for development and encourage international organizations to assess the appropriate role which they can play.

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Infectious Diseases

1996-95. We draw attention to the measures already undertaken in each of our countries to encourage the scientific community in its search for remedies to these diseases. We pledge to pursue this effort at the national level, while at the same time promoting international cooperation among research teams in this field.

1996-96. Moreover, we will continue to extend various kinds of assistance programs, in particular for the benefit of the countries hardest hit by HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases.

1996-97. We will continue to work to ensure the availability of safe and effective treatments for these all-too-often fatal diseases.

Drugs

1996-98. Drugs represent a serious threat for our younger generations’ future, our citizens’ health and the integrity of our societies. We are determined to intensify our efforts in order to fight against any kind of drug trafficking and all forms of criminality in connection with it, including money laundering.

1996-99. We therefore urge all States to fully comply with their obligations under international conventions dealing with drugs abuse and illicit traffic in psychotropic substances, and are ready to strengthen our cooperation with all countries involved in this fight against drugs.

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Transnational Organized Crime

We commit ourselves to:

1996-100. Mobilize our full resources and influence to combat this danger.

1996-101. Support and enhance existing institutions that deal with transnational organized crime, including the United Nations, Interpol, and World Customs Organization.

1996-102. Encourage all States to adhere to and fully implement existing conventions, treaties and arrangements dealing with transnational organized crime.

1996-103. Resist the enormous threat posed by narcotic traffickers, by implementing the UN conventions against drugs, and intensifying efforts to put traffickers behind bars and prevent them from laundering their money.

1996-104. Share information and expertise to detect, investigate and prosecute criminals.

1996-105. Increase operational cooperation among relevant agencies.

1996-106. Deny the use of our territories to transnational organized crime.

1996-107. Take all possible steps, particularly extradition, to bring fugitives to justice.

1996-108. Provide the broadest possible mutual legal assistance.

1996-109. Deprive criminals of their illicit profits by adopting appropriate legislation and implementing recommendations of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF).

1996-110. Adopt the necessary legislative and regulatory measures to combat corruption.

Consequently, with a view to achieving these goals:

1996-111. We ask the Senior Experts Group to ensure the active follow-up of the implementation of these recommendations and to report on their progress and developments in this field to the next Summit.

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Regional Situations

1996-112. We will continue supporting all efforts of these organizations and all inter-regional initiatives aimed at developing and reinforcing cooperation between the different regions of the world in the areas of political, economic and cultural matters.

1996-113. We welcome the enormous achievements attained in the Middle East peace process over the past several years. We are strongly committed to the full implementation of all agreements reached, and we will continue to provide our full support to those who take risks for peace.

1996-114. We reaffirm our determination to enforce full implementation of all UN Security Council resolutions concerning Iraq and Libya only full compliance with which could result in the lifting of all sanctions.

1996-115. We call on the international community to join us in providing political and financial support for the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO).

Review of UN Reforms in the Economic and Social Fields

1996-116. We will continue and reinforce our efforts to improve the functioning of the UN in the economic and social fields and its impact on development.

1996-117. We will continue to work in partnership with other members to complete processes underway, including Agenda for Development, and initiate further processes as required.

1996-118. In addition, the effective implementation of results achieved to date will be a priority.

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Decisions Concerning Bosnia and Herzegovina (9 commitments)

Endorsing the conclusions adopted at the Peace Implementation Conference in Florence, we have taken the following decisions:

Elections and Institutions

1996-119. We shall contribute substantially to the preparation of the elections scheduled by the OSCE on 14 September 1996. To this end, we are increasing our assistance to the OSCE, inter alia by contributing to the deployment of 2,000 observers and the development of independent media.

1996-120. We support the High Representative in his work of preparation with the Parties of the establishment of the new institutions : the collective Presidency, the Council of Ministers, the Parliament, the Constitutional Court and the Central Bank. We shall provide the future authorities with the necessary constitutional and legal assistance.

International War Crimes Tribunal

1996-121. Recalling UN Security Council Resolution 1022, including the provisions on sanctions, we support the High Representative and the Commander of IFOR and will, as necessary, act following their recommendations.

1996-122. We are ready to consider the application of sanctions instruments to any Party to the Peace Agreement.

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Reconstruction

1996-123. Economic reconstruction is vital to lasting peace. We call upon all donors to accelerate payment of their pledges for 1996 and to make every effort to disburse at least 50 % of 1996 pledges by December 1996 and 100 % by June 1997.

1996-124. Economic assistance should be provided to all Parties in Bosnia and Herzegovina depending upon their compliance with the peace process.

1996-125. We confirm our full support for the High Representative in the exercising of his coordination role.

Refugees and the Rule of Law

1996-126. In order to strengthen the rule of law, we are prepared to provide technical legal assistance. We shall ensure that the means available to the International Police Task Force and its effectiveness be increased.

Regional and Security Issues

1996-127. We stress the need to observe the timetable set by the Arms control Agreement signed in Florence on June 14. We shall provide the OSCE with the means to verify the Arms Control Agreement, and closely monitor its implementation.

A New Partnership for Development (1 commitment)

1996-128. All participants at the meeting stated their conviction of the need to focus grants and concessional financing primarily on the poorest countries, to enable them to implement these policies and thus benefit from the globalization of capital and trade flows. They decided to pay particular attention to Sub-Saharan Africa. A medium-term strategy will be framed for this continent, taking as its starting point the initiative launched by the United Nations Secretary-General.

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1997 Denver, U.S. (145 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (75 commitments)

Introduction

1997-1. Russia has taken bold measures to complete an historic transformation into a democratic state with a market economy. We are committed to continue the trend of increased Russian participation in the work of our officials between Summits and reiterate our shared commitment to the promotion of a fuller involvement of Russia in the Summit process.

1997-2. We support the goal of early Russian accession to the WTO on the basis of conditions generally applicable to newly acceding members.

Opportunities and Challenges of Aging Populations

1997-3. We agreed that it is important to learn from one another how our policies and programs can promote active aging and advance structural reforms to preserve and strengthen our pension, health and long-term care systems. Our governments will work together, within the OECD and with other international organizations, to promote active aging through information exchanges and cross-national research.

1997-4. We encourage collaborative biomedical and behavioral research to improve active life expectancy and reduce disability, and have directed our officials to identify gaps in our knowledge and explore developing comparable data in our nations to improve our capacity to address the challenges of population aging into the 21st Century.

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Environment

1997-5. This is a pivotal year for efforts to promote sustainable development and protect the environment. We are determined to address the environmental challenges that will affect the quality of life of future generations and to enhance public awareness, especially among our youth, of the importance of advancing sustainable development goals.

UN General Assembly Special Session

1997-6. We discussed the progress that has been made since the 1992 Rio Earth Summit in defining and promoting sustainable development, and we commit ourselves to taking action in areas critical to advancing this agenda. Sustainable development demands the full integration of environment, economic and social policies; should be based upon democratic governance and respect for human rights; and should have poverty eradication as one of its ultimate objectives.

1997-7. In this connection, we reaffirm the vital contribution of civil society. We urge the United Nations General Assembly, at its Special Session to be held next week, to reaffirm and give impetus to the Rio commitments, to take stock of implementation since Rio, and, most importantly, to develop a manageable list of priority issues to address in future work on sustainable development.

Climate Change

1997-8. At the Third Conference of Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Kyoto we must forge a strong agreement that is consistent with the Berlin Mandate and that contains quantified and legally-binding emission targets.

1997-9. We intend to commit to meaningful, realistic and equitable targets that will result in reductions of greenhouse gas emissions by 2010.

1997-10. Developing countries must also take measurable steps, recognizing that their obligations will increase as their economies grow. We agree to work in partnership with them to that effect by implementing technological development and diffusion and supporting environmental education and capacity building.

1997-11. We agree to work together to enhance international efforts to further develop global systems for monitoring climate change and other environmental trends.

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Forests

1997-12. Forests continue to be destroyed and degraded at alarming rates ‘ in many parts of the world. To reverse this trend, we call upon all countries to make a long-term political commitment to achieve sustainable forest management practices worldwide and to ‘join us in the immediate implementation of proposals put forward by the UNCSD Intergovernmental Panel on Forests.

1997-13. We have discussed in Denver and have agreed to support a practical Action Program that includes implementing national programs and building capacity for sustainable forest management; establishing networks of protected areas; assessing the state of each nation’s forests using agreed criteria and indicators; promoting private sector management of forests; and eliminating illegal logging.

1997-14. We ask that our officials meet early next year to assess progress in implementing this Action Program and call for a report at our next meeting.

1997-15. At the Special Session of the United Nations, we will work with the active involvement of environmental groups to build consensus on an international agreement with appropriately high international standards to achieve these goals.

Freshwater

1997-16. The Special Session of the UN General Assembly should encourage the CSD to develop a practical plan of action to address freshwater-related issues, including promotion of efficient water use, improvement of water quality and sanitation, technological development and capacity building, public awareness and institutional improvements.

1997-17. To achieve these objectives, we have also agreed to promote bilateral and regional cooperation on freshwater concerns, and to enhance coordination of our efforts in this area.

Oceans

1997-18. We must strengthen our efforts to protect the world’s oceans. We will work to ensure an effective and integrated effort to deal with key issues, including sustainable fishing, shipping, marine pollution from land- based and off-shore activities, and oil spill prevention and emergency response.

1997-19. In this connection, we will also enhance cooperation in monitoring the ecology in the Northern Pacific, as well as in forecasting earthquakes and tsunamis in this region.

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Desertification

1997-20. We welcome the entry into force of the "Convention to Combat Desertification," and urge the parties to develop concrete steps to implement the convention at the First Conference of the Parties this Fall in Rome.

Children’s Environmental Health

1997-21. Our governments will explicitly incorporate children into environmental risk assessments and standard setting and together will work to strengthen information exchange, provide for microbiologically safe drinking water, and reduce children’s exposure to lead, environmental tobacco smoke and other air pollutants.

Institutions

1997-22. We reaffirm the importance of the Global Environmental Facility as the leading multilateral funding mechanism for the global environment. We will work to strengthen its finances and enhance its effectiveness.

1997-23. In this regard, we will each do our part to contribute to a successful replenishment of the Facility.

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Infectious Diseases

1997-24. In the coming year, our governments will promote more effective coordination of international responses to outbreaks; promote development of a global surveillance network, building upon existing national and regional surveillance systems; and help to build public health capacity to prevent, detect and control infectious diseases globally including efforts to explore the use of regional stocks of essential vaccines, therapeutics, diagnostics and other materials.

1997-25. Central to this work will be strengthening and linking existing activities in and among each of our countries, with developing countries, and in other fora, especially the World Health Organization.

1997-26. We will work to provide the resources necessary to accelerate AIDS vaccine research, and together will enhance international scientific cooperation and collaboration.

1997-27. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) must help expand the scale and quality of the response to HIV/AIDS. As a group and with others, we will work to assure that it has resources adequate to fulfill its mandate.

Nuclear Safety

1997-28. We reaffirm our commitments from the 1996 Moscow Summit on Nuclear Safety and Security to give an absolute priority to safety in the use of nuclear energy.

1997-29. We note that further substantial progress is still required in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and in the Newly Independent States, especially by strengthening regulatory authorities, enhancing reactor safety and improving safety culture. We consider further joint efforts to this end a major priority. In this regard, we attach the greatest importance to the full implementation of the Nuclear Safety Account agreements.

Global Energy Issues

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1997-30. We decided to convene a ministerial on energy issues in Moscow next year, and request our officials to start preparations for such a meeting. Its results will be discussed at our next Summit.

Transnational Organized Crime

We must intensify our efforts to implement the Lyon recommendations. In the coming year we will focus on two areas of critical concern:

1997-31. First, the investigation, prosecution, and punishment of high-tech criminals, such as those tampering with computer and telecommunications technology, across national borders;

1997-32. Second, a system to provide all governments the technical and legal capabilities to respond to high- tech crimes, regardless of where the criminals may be located.

1997-33. Border security is central to all efforts to fight transnational crime, drug-trafficking and terrorism. To this end, we will combat illegal firearms trafficking, by considering a new international instrument.

1997-34. We will seek to adopt standard systems for firearms identification and a stronger international regime for import and export licensing of firearms.

1997-35. We will continue our work to strengthen document security, and improve strategies to combat alien smuggling, attacking the problem at the source and transit the destination countries.

1997-36. Our governments will also move further ahead with efforts to strengthen international legal regimes for extradition and mutual legal assistance, to ensure that no criminal receives safe haven anywhere in the world.

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Illicit Drugs

1997-37. We are determined to intensify our efforts to combat the production, trafficking and use of illicit drugs, which represent a global threat to the safety of our citizens, and the well-being of our societies and institutions.

We have asked our appropriate government agencies to build on their established patterns of cooperation to address this common threat. In particular, we will:

1997-38. study mechanisms that would assist in the development of healthy, drug-free economies in all States;

1997-39. support further efforts to share relevant information on money-laundering, chemical precursors, new synthetic drugs, trafficking patterns and methods, and other data; and

1997-40. will work together to strengthen the capabilities of law enforcement institutions to combat illicit drugs.

1997-41. Our governments will work together to develop the agenda for the UN General Assembly Special Session on Drugs in June 1998.

Terrorism

We have asked our Ministers to intensify diplomatic efforts to ensure that by the year 2000 all States join the international counterterrorism conventions specified in the 1996 UN resolution on measures to counter terrorism.

We have instructed our officials to take additional steps:

1997-42. to strengthen the capability of hostage negotiation experts and counterterrorism response units;

1997-43. to exchange information on technologies to detect and deter the use of materials of mass destruction in terrorist attacks;

1997-44. to develop means to deter terrorist attacks on electronic and computer infrastructure;

1997-45. to strengthen maritime security; to exchange information on security practices for international special events; and

1997-46. to strengthen and expand international cooperation and consultation.

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United Nations Reform

1997-47. We reaffirm that the UN must further improve its ability to act quickly and effectively to address threats to international peace and security. We will continue to help develop the capacities of the UN in preventing and resolving conflicts.

Africa: Partnership for Development

1997-48. At Lyon, we initiated a New Global Partnership for Development, noting- both that developing countries have a fundamental responsibility for promoting their own development, and that developed countries must support these efforts. This year, we aim to translate the principles of that Partnership into new concrete action to support the efforts of African countries to participate fully in the expansion of global prosperity and to spread the benefits throughout their societies.

1997-49. We will support African efforts to promote democracy and good governance, improve the integrity of public institutions, enhance the transparency of government spending, in particular of procurement, and develop national anti-bribery regulations.

1997-50. Access to our markets is a crucial tool for fostering economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. We each will continue to improve, through various means, access to our markets for African exports.

1997-51. African countries will be major beneficiaries of efforts in the WTO on a plan of action to promote capacity building and to provide predictable and favorable market access conditions for least developed countries. We are committed to the effective implementation of this plan and intend to participate actively in the high-level WTO/UNCTAD/International Trade Center meeting later this year.

1997-52. We will consider ways to enhance opportunities for the Sub-Saharan African countries that need them most and are undertaking effective reform measures.

1997-53. We will review our own bilateral aid and trade promotion programs to ensure that they support climates conducive to economic growth and private investment, including by strengthening capacity.

1997-54. Substantial flows of official development assistance will continue to play an essential role in building the capacity of Sub-Saharan African countries to achieve their sustainable development objectives. We are committed to a results-oriented approach to development policy, with the particular goal of combating extreme poverty.

1997-55. We will work with African countries to ensure adequate and well-targeted assistance for those countries which have the greatest need and carry out the necessary broad-based reforms. This assistance will include support for democratic governance, respect for human rights, sound public administration, efficient legal and judicial systems, infrastructure development, rural development, food security, environmental protection and human resource development, including health and education of their people.

1997-56. In this regard, we will work to strengthen cooperation among concerned institutes to facilitate and coordinate capacity building efforts.

1997-57. To maximize the effectiveness of our efforts, we will deepen the dialogue with African partners, work for greater local ownership of development strategies and encourage the participation of non-governmental actors.

1997-58. We will also strengthen donor coordination, including with emerging donors.

1997-59. We applaud African leadership in developing effective local capacities in conflict prevention, peacekeeping and post-conflict reconciliation and recovery. We will support African peacebuilding initiatives at the regional, sub-regional and national levels, in particular by the Organization of African Unity (OAU), taking into account the recent OECD Guidelines on Conflict, Peace, and Development Cooperation, and we will help to forge active partnerships with the United Nations and other donors.

1997-60. We have requested that our officials report to us prior to next year’s Summit about the efforts they have undertaken together to implement all aspects of this partnership.

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Democracy and Human Rights

1997-61. We will continue to give full support to the International Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, and work to ensure that the international community and States concerned bring to justice through due process persons responsible for violations of human rights and international humanitarian law.

1997-62. We will work to ensure adoption and ratification of international instruments designed to provide protection to these groups, in particular the speedy adoption of an International Labor Organization Convention on the eradication of intolerable forms of child labor.

1997-63. We will work through multilateral and regional organizations, particularly with the Development Assistance Committee of the OECD as well as in partnership with nongovernmental organizations and young democracies.

1997-64. We have asked our Ministers to pursue these efforts and to make recommendations for consideration at our next Summit.

1997-65. We will actively work to eliminate corruption in aid-funded procurement.

1997-66. We will take prompt steps to criminalize, in an effective and coordinated manner, bribery of foreign public officials, and to implement previous undertakings on the tax-deductibility of such bribes.

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Non-Proliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament

1997-67. Since the Moscow Summit on Nuclear Safety and Security, we have taken important steps to implement the agreed "Programme for Preventing and Combating Illicit Trafficking in Nuclear Materials." We will expand participation in this program to include countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and in Central Asia and the Caucasus.

1997-68. Further regarding the safe and effective management of fissile material, with respect to such materials no longer required for defense purposes, we will continue our cooperation through concrete initiatives, in particular the French-German-Russian project to build a pilot plant in Russia to produce MOX fuel from weapons plutonium, which is open to additional states, and the related U.S.-Russian cooperation on the conversion of weapons plutonium.

1997-69. Recognizing that enhancing confidence in compliance would reinforce the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, we reaffirm our determination to complete as soon as possible through negotiation a legally-binding and effective verification mechanism.

1997-70. We reaffirm our unwavering commitment to full implementation of the objectives set forth in the Non- Proliferation Treaty. To that end, we welcome the IAEA’s recent adoption of a program on strengthening the effectiveness and improving the efficiency of the safeguards system.

1997-71. We reaffirm our commitment to the immediate commencement and early conclusion of a convention banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.

1997-72. We recognize that global security and stability are strengthened by promoting international responsibility in the transfer of arms and sensitive technologies, and to that end reaffirm our support for the Wassenaar Arrangement.

1997-73. We encourage the work of the UN Panel of Governmental Experts on Small Arms to identify the ways and means to prevent and reduce the excessive and destabilizing transfer of small arms and light weapons and we will continue to work together to curb illegal trafficking in firearms.

Political Situations
Middle East

1997-74. We shall do our utmost to reinvigorate implementation of the Oslo Accords and to uphold the principles of Madrid, including the exchange of land for peace.

1997-75. We confirm our determination to obtain full compliance with all UN Security Council resolutions related to Iraq and Libya. Only full compliance with these resolutions could result in the lifting of sanctions.

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G8 Foreign Ministers’ Progress Report (26 commitments)

Nonproliferation - Plutonium Management

1997-76. In order to sustain and build upon the momentum generated by these initiatives, developed in the wake of the Moscow Summit, the Non-Proliferation Experts Group should begin discussion of possible arrangements for coordinating and implementing plutonium management efforts.

1997-77. The Non-Proliferation Experts Group should submit a report to the Heads by next year’s Summit in Birmingham.

Anti-Personnel Landmines

1997-78. Our Governments will continue to participate in efforts to conclude an effective anti- personnel landmine ban to address this urgent problem.

1997-79. Consistent with last year’s decisions at Lyon, our Governments are committed to universal adherence to the Convention on Conventional Weapons and to the 1996 Protocol on Mines, Booby Traps, and Other Devices, which strengthens restrictions on the use and transfer of anti-personnel landmines.

1997-80. Our Governments will continue their efforts to secure ratification of the amended Protocol by all countries that have not completed their ratification efforts.

1997-81. We will endeavor to ensure that our various bans on the export of anti-personnel landmines become permanent.

1997-82. In the coming year, we will continue our efforts to develop the most promising mine detection and clearing technology and to share this technology, as appropriate, with the international community.

1997-83. We will also continue our active demining assistance programs.

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Transnational Organized Crime

1997-84. The Senior Experts’ Group has overseen follow-up and implementation of the 40 recommendations agreed upon in Lyon to combat transnational organized crime. To strengthen their operational effectiveness, our enforcement experts will consider joint project proposals to target and disrupt major transnational criminal organizations and activities.

1997-85. To help bring criminals to justice, we have agreed upon practical extradition and mutual assistance measures.

1997-86. Our experts are vigorously pursuing arrangements to ensure extradition, transfer for trial or effective domestic prosecution of nationals, and rapid and efficient coordination among law enforcement authorities.

1997-87. To combat illicit firearms trafficking more effectively, we have agreed to promote close operational cooperation among our experts and relevant law enforcement agencies in other states (including to facilitate prompt responses to firearms tracing requests) and to strengthen direct exchange of information with each other, including scientific and technological information for law enforcement purposes.

1997-88. To counter the illegal smuggling of people across our borders, we pledged to assure that our laws and practices effectively target the organized criminal groups involved.

1997-89. Recognizing that forged and stolen travel or other official documents are a key precondition for many forms of transnational crime, we have adopted measures to counter document fraud.

The significant growth in computer and telecommunications technologies brings with it new challenges: global networks require new legal and technical mechanisms that allow for a timely and effective international law enforcement response to computer-related crimes. To that end, we will:

1997-90. work together to enhance abilities to locate, identify, and prosecute criminals;

1997-91. cooperate with and assist one another in the collection of evidence; and

1997-92. continue to develop training for law enforcement personnel to fight high- technology and computer-related crime.

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Counterterrorism

1997-93. To counter, inter alia, the use of strong encryption by terrorists, we have endorsed acceleration of consultations and adoption of the OECD guidelines for cryptography policy and invited all states to develop national policies on encryption, including key, management, which may allow, consistent with these guidelines, lawful government access to prevent and investigate acts of terrorism and to find a mechanism to cooperate internationally in implementing such policies.

1997-94. To promote further cooperation, our governments will compare their domestic legislation related to terrorist fund-raising, and ensure strong domestic laws and controls over the manufacture, trading and transport of explosives.

1997-95. We will continue these efforts in the coming year and extend our counterterrorist cooperation to other critical spheres.

1997-96. To protect our electronic and computer systems from disruption by terrorist attacks, we will share information and methodologies to prevent such attacks and to prevent the use of computer networks for terrorist and criminal purposes.

1997-97. To address the continuing danger from acts of terror using high explosives and other sophisticated technologies, and from potential use by terrorists of materials of mass destruction, our experts will intensify the exchange of information in research and development of counterterrorism technologies.

1997-98. Because of terrorist and other threats to the security of major international events, we will share information and experiences in providing security for such events.

1997-99. To heighten vigilance against acts of terror directed at maritime vessels and their passengers, our governments will encourage the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to strengthen maritime security measures and to improve the awareness and implementation of I.%IO standards.

1997-100. In response to a growing international desire for closer cooperation. we will strengthen and expand international cooperation and consultation and reach out bilaterally and multilaterally, on counterterrorism issues.

UN Reform

1997-101. We reaffirm our commitment to achieving early and practical results in the renewal of the United Nations.

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G7 Confronting Global Economic and Financial Challenges (29 commitments)

Introduction

1997-102. We remain committed to sustaining non-inflationary growth and contributing to world prosperity.

The increasing globalization of markets is an important engine of world growth that provides opportunities to all countries. Our goal is to realize the full benefits of globalization for all while meeting the challenges it presents.

To achieve this goal, we must:

1997-103. Implement policies to promote sustainable, non- inflationary growth; create jobs; restore sound public finances; and meet the challenge of the aging of our populations.

1997-104. Work together with other countries to promote open markets for trade and investment and to support global financial stability, crucial underpinnings of economic growth and prosperity.

1997-105. Promote the successful integration of the transition and developing countries of all regions of the world into the global economy.

Promoting Growth

1997-106. One of the most important challenges we face is responding to the economic, financial and social implications of the changing demographics in our aging societies. It could significantly affect our pension and health care costs and influence our public budgets; reduce public and private savings, and affect global flows of capital. We therefore pledge to undertake structural reforms that will address these issues.

1997-107. We have asked our Finance and Economic Ministers to examine, in coordination with other competent national authorities, the economic and fiscal implications of aging, including within the OECD and other relevant international organizations.

1997-108. We reiterate our commitment to promoting international monetary stability.

1997-109. We have asked our Finance Ministers to continue to cooperate closely on economic policy and in the exchange markets.

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Strengthening the Stability of the Global Financial System

1997-110. We call on the international financial institutions and the international regulatory bodies to fulfill their roles in assisting emerging market economies in strengthening their financial systems and prudential standards. Our Finance Ministers will consult with the relevant supervisory and international regulatory bodies and international organizations to develop approaches for further actions, and report prior to next year’s Summit on progress in implementing these initiatives.

Building an Integrated Global Economy

1997-111. The rapid growth of global trade and private capital flows requires continuing adaptation and reform of the international financial institutions (IFIs). We therefore reaffirm our support for the ambitious program of IFI reforms underway following Halifax, and our conviction that their comprehensive implementation will substantially strengthen the effectiveness of the international monetary system.

1997-112. We pledge to work collaboratively with the institutions as they pursue these efforts, and to cooperate among ourselves and with others having a stake in the international monetary system to provide them the resources and multilateral support needed for success.

1997-113. By the time of the World Bank/IMF annual meetings in Hong Kong, we seek substantial agreement on key elements of an amendment to the IMF Articles to give the specific mandate to promote capital account liberalization to meet the new challenges in global capital markets.

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Global Partnership for Development

1997-114. We reiterate our commitment to sustainable and widely-shared economic growth and development, and reaffirm our full partnership with developing countries and the multilateral institutions, as agreed in Lyon.

1997-115. We remain committed, through this partnership and our bilateral efforts, to meeting the interrelated challenges of eradicating deep-seated poverty, investing in human potential and promoting dignity, and building on the clear lessons and major achievements of the past decade.

1997-116. This partnership is based on shared responsibilities and shared interests. For our part, we are committed to a sound global financial system, open trade and investment regimes, and consistent and sustainable growth in the advanced economies.

1997-117. We must ensure that adequate development assistance is available, and that it be concentrated primarily where it will have greatest impact, on the poorest countries in danger of being left further behind, and on the priority human resource investments that are the ultimate source of sustainable development.

1997-118. We reaffirm the Lyon commitment to support the IFIs’ efforts to curtail unproductive expenditure in developing countries through our aid and credits.

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Combating Corruption and Financial Crimes

1997-119. We are committed to submit criminalization proposals to our legislative bodies by April 1, 1998, and to seek their enactment by the end of 1998.

1997-120. We are also committed to that end, promptly to open negotiations of a convention to be completed by the end of this year with a view to its entry into force as soon as possible within 1998.

1997-121. We reiterate our commitment to improve international cooperation between law enforcement agencies and financial regulators on cases involving serious financial crimes and regulatory abuse.

1997-122. We ask our experts to report and make recommendations at next year’s Summit.

Supporting Growing Global Trade and Investment

1997-123. We believe that it will be in the interests of all WTO members to secure a financial services agreement by the end of this year, on a full MFN basis, that contains significantly improved market access and national treatment commitments from a broader range of countries. We shall negotiate constructively to achieve such a result and urge our partners to join us in this effort.

1997-124. We restate the primacy of an open, multilateral, trading system based on the WTO. We are committed to building the widest possible support for this process.

1997-125. We agreed to explore further market opening initiatives, taking into account developments in the world economy, the widening membership of the multilateral system, and important traditional trade barriers that remain.

1997-126. While rejecting the use of labor standards for protectionist purposes, we renew our commitment to the observance of internationally recognized core labor standards.

1997-127. We each will continue to improve, through various means, access to our markets for least-developed countries.

1997-128. We have directed our officials to work with the OECD, WTO, other appropriate international organizations, and the private sector to identify opportunities to facilitate global electronic commerce, as well as the challenges it poses to ensure preservation of national security interests, consumer protections, effective tax administration and the ability to deal with criminal activities, including money laundering.

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Ukraine

1997-129. We have made significant progress in implementing the 1995 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Ukraine on Chernobyl Closure. We reaffirm our commitment to assist Ukraine, within the context of the MOU, in mobilizing funds for energy projects to help meet its power needs in 2000 and beyond after Chernobyl’s closure.

1997-130. We agreed on the importance of securing the environmental safety of the sarcophagus covering the remains of the destroyed Chernobyl reactor. This task is inevitably beyond the resources of Ukraine alone. This is a major challenge for the international community. We have decided to add to the commitments we undertook in the MOU with Ukraine. We endorse the setting up of a multilateral funding mechanism and have agreed that the G-7 will contribute $300 million over the lifetime of the project.

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Final Report to the G7 Heads of State and Government on Promoting Financial Stability
(8 Commitments)

The Heads of State and Government in Lyon called for the "implementation of improved practical measures to deal with risks relating to the operation of the global financial markets." The Heads asked for maximum progress over the year in:

1997-131. enhancing cooperation among the authorities responsible for the supervision of internationally-active financial institutions, importantly by clarifying their roles and responsibilities;

1997-132. encouraging stronger risk management and improved transparency in the markets and connected activities, especially in the innovative markets;

1997-133. encouraging the adoption of strong prudential standards in emerging economies and increasing cooperation with their supervisory authorities; and

1997-134. studying the implications of recent technological advances which make possible the creation of sophisticated methods for retail electronic payments and how to ensure their benefits are fully realized.

1997-135. The Heads requested that the G-7 Finance Ministers report to the next Summit in Denver on these issues.

We welcome the progress by these groups and, going forward, we:

1997-136. Agree to support necessary changes in laws or regulations that facilitate and improve information exchanges for supervisory purposes between national regulatory authorities, while preserving the confidentiality of information.

1997-137. Recognize the importance of changing laws and regulations, where necessary, to facilitate onsite inspection arrangements for branches.

1997-138. We agree to introduce, where necessary and appropriate, legislative measures to ensure the enforceability of sound netting agreements in relation to insolvency and bankruptcy rules to reduce systemic risk in international transactions.

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G8 Statement on Bosnia and Herzegovina (7 commitments)

1997-139. We, the Leaders of the Eight, reaffirm our commitment to full implementation of the Peace Agreement, and to the goal of Bosnia and Herzegovina becoming a single democratic, prosperous and multi-ethnic nation.

1997-140. We welcome the accomplishments since the 1995 Peace Agreement. Significant challenges remain but we are determined to accelerate the implementation of the Peace Agreement and to reinforce the progress made in the last eighteen months.

1997-141. We firmly endorse the political declaration adopted at the Sintra Ministerial on May 30, 1997, and join the Steering Board in demanding intensification of effort by the Parties toward fulfillment of their obligations under the Peace Agreement.

1997-142. We will continue to provide materials and financial support for the International Police Task Force’s efforts to restructure, train, and equip police, in order to establish public order and safety for all the Bosnian people consistent with international democratic standards.

1997-143. When the Parties meet the necessary conditions, we are prepared to implement the full reconstruction program and to support considerable debt reduction by the Paris Club.

1997-144. The authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina must uphold fully the right of refugees and displaced persons to return to their homes in a peaceful and orderly manner. We will support those communities that work cooperatively to support returns. Those who fail to do so will lose access to economic assistance.

1997-145. All authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina must work to accelerate the development of democratic institutions, including accelerating efforts to establish independent news media. We shall contribute the necessary support for the conduct of municipal elections.

G8 Statement on Cambodia (0 commitments)

- no commitments reached

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1998 Birmingham, UK (73 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (68 commitments)

Promoting Sustainable Growth in the Global Economy

Overall global prospects remain good. However, since we last met, the prospects have been temporarily set back by the financial crisis in Asia. We confirm our strong support for the efforts to re-establish stability and growth in the region and for the key role of the International Financial Institutions. Successful recovery in Asia will bring important benefits for us all. Therefore:

1998-1. We resolve to keep our own markets open and call on other countries to do the same.

Looking ahead to the WTO’s celebration of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the GATT next week, we:

1998-2. reaffirm our strong commitment to continued trade and investment liberalisation within the multilateral framework of the WTO;

1998-3. agree to promote public support for the multilateral system by encouraging greater transparency in the WTO, as in other international organisations;

1998-4. reaffirm our support for efforts to complete existing multilateral commitments, push forward the built-in agenda and tackle new areas in pursuing broad-based multilateral liberalisation;

1998-5. confirm our wish to see emerging and developing economies participate fully and effectively in the multilateral trade system;

1998-6. commit ourselves to deliver early, tangible benefits from this participation to help generate growth and alleviate poverty in these countries.

We undertake to help least developed countries by:

1998-7. providing additional duty-free access for their goods, if necessary on an autonomous basis,

1998-8. ensuring that rules of origin are transparent,

1998-9. assisting efforts to promote regional integration,

1998-10. helping their markets become more attractive and accessible to investment and capital flows.

We are encouraged by the new spirit of hope and progress in Africa.

1998-11. We commit ourselves to a real and effective partnership in support of these countries’ efforts to reform, to develop, and to reach the internationally agreed goals for economic and social development, as set out in the OECD’s 21st Century Strategy.

1998-12. We shall therefore work with them to achieve at least primary education for children everywhere, and to reduce drastically child and maternal mortality and the proportion of the world’s population living in extreme poverty.

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To help achieve these goals, we intend to implement fully the vision we set out at Lyon and Denver. We therefore pledge ourselves to a shared international effort:

1998-13. to provide effective support for the efforts of these countries to build democracy and good governance, stronger civil society and greater transparency,

1998-14. to take action against corruption, for example by making every effort to ratify the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention by the end of 1998;

1998-15. to recognise the importance of substantial levels of development assistance

1998-16. to mobilise resources for development in support of reform programmes, fulfilling our responsibilities and in a spirit of burden-sharing, including negotiating a prompt and adequate replenishment of the soft loan arm of the World Bank (IDA 12) as well as providing adequate resources for the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility of the IMF and for the African Development Fund;

1998-17. to work to focus existing bilateral aid and investment agency assistance in support of sound reforms, including the development of basic social infrastructure and measures to improve trade and investment;

1998-18. to work within the OECD on a recommendation on untying aid to the least developed countries with a view to proposing a text in 1999;

1998-19. to support the speedy and determined extension of debt relief to more countries, within the terms of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative agreed by the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) and Paris Club.

1998-20. We will work with the international institutions and other creditors to ensure that when they qualify, countries get the relief they need, including interim relief measures whenever necessary, to secure a lasting exit from their debt problems.

1998-21. to enhance mutual cooperation on infectious and parasitic diseases and support the World Health Organisation’s efforts in those areas.

1998-22. We support the new initiative to ‘Roll Back Malaria’ to relieve the suffering experienced by hundreds of millions of people, and significantly reduce the death rate from malaria by 2010.

1998-23. We will also continue our efforts to reduce the global scourge of AIDS through vaccine development, preventive programmes and appropriate therapy, and by our continued support for UNAIDS.

1998-24. We welcome the French proposal for a ‘Therapeutic Solidarity Initiative’ and other proposals for the prevention and treatment of AIDS, and request our experts to examine speedily the feasibility of their implementation.

1998-25. We will look for ways to enhance the capacity of Africa-based institutions to provide training in conflict prevention and peacekeeping.

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Energy

1998-26. With the objective of ensuring reliable, economic, safe and environmentally-sound energy supplies to meet the projected increase in demand, we commit ourselves to encourage the development of energy markets.

1998-27. We also recognise the importance of international co-operation to develop economically viable international energy transmission networks. We shall pursue this co-operation bilaterally and multilaterally, including within the framework and principles of the Energy Charter Treaty.

1998-28. Considering the new competitive pressures on our electric power sectors, we reaffirm the commitment we made at the 1996 Moscow Summit to the safe operation of nuclear power plants and the achievement of high safety standards worldwide, and attach the greatest importance to the full implementation of the Nuclear Safety Account grant agreements.

1998-29. We reaffirm our commitment to the stated mission of the Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSWG).

1998-30. We agreed to deepen Russia’s role in the activities of the NSWG, with a view to eventual full membership in the appropriate circumstances.

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Environment

1998-31. The greatest environmental threat to our future prosperity remains climate change. We confirm our determination to address it, and endorse the results of our Environment Ministers’ meeting at Leeds Castle.

1998-32. The adoption at Kyoto of a Protocol with legally binding targets was a historic turning point in our efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We welcome the recent signature of the Protocol by some of us and confirm the intention of the rest of us to sign it within the next year, and resolve to make an urgent start on the further work that is necessary to ratify and make Kyoto a reality. To this end:

1998-33. we will each undertake domestically the steps necessary to reduce significantly greenhouse gas emissions;

1998-34. as the Kyoto protocol says, to supplement domestic actions, we will work further on flexible mechanisms such as international market-based emissions trading, joint implementation and the clean development mechanism, and on sinks.

1998-35. We aim to draw up rules and principles that will ensure an enforceable, accountable, verifiable, open and transparent trading system and an effective compliance regime;

1998-36. we will work together and with others to prepare for the Buenos Aires meeting of COP4 this autumn.

1998-37. We will also look at ways of working with all countries to increase global participation in establishing targets to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

1998-38. We will aim to reach agreement as soon as possible on how the clean development mechanism can work, including how it might best draw on the experience and expertise of existing institutions, including the Global Environment Facility.

1998-39. We will work together with developing countries to achieve voluntary efforts and commitments, appropriate to their national circumstances and development needs.

1998-40. We shall also enhance our efforts with developing countries to promote technological development and diffusion.

1998-41. In the year 2000, we will assess our progress on the implementation of the G8 Action Programme on Forests published last week.

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Growth, Employability and Inclusion

The London Conference Action Plans show that individually we are all making new commitments to improve employability and job creation in our countries. In particular, we have committed ourselves to:

1998-42. measures to help young, long-term unemployed and other groups hard hit by unemployment find work;

1998-43. measures to help entrepreneurs to set up companies;

1998-44. carrying out structural reforms, including making tax and benefit systems more employment friendly and liberalisation of product markets;

1998-45. measures to promote lifelong learning.

1998-46. Each country confirmed its determination to introduce the measures set out in its Action Plans and to pursue the concept of active ageing.

1998-47. We are also willing to share our principles and experiences, including in the relevant international institutions particularly the ILO, OECD and the IFIs, to help foster growth, jobs and inclusion not only in the G8 but throughout the world.

1998-48. We renew our support for global progress towards the implementation of internationally recognised core labour standards, including continued collaboration between the ILO and WTO secretariats in accordance with the conclusions of the Singapore conference and the proposal for an ILO declaration and implementation mechanism on these labour standards.

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Combating Drugs and International Crime

There must be no safe havens either for criminals or for their money. We have therefore agreed a number of further actions to tackle this threat more effectively:

1998-49. We fully support efforts to negotiate within the next two years an effective United Nations convention against transnational organised crime that will provide our law enforcement authorities with the additional tools they need.

1998-50. We agree to implement rapidly the ten principles and ten point action plan agreed by our Ministers on high tech crime.

1998-51. We call for close cooperation with industry to reach agreement on a legal framework for obtaining, presenting and preserving electronic data as evidence, while maintaining appropriate privacy protection, and agreements on sharing evidence of those crimes with international partners. This will help us combat a wide range of crime, including abuse of the internet and other new technologies.

1998-52. We agreed to establish Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) where we do not already have them, in line with our national constitutions and legal systems, to collect and analyse information on those engaged in money laundering and liaise with the equivalent agencies in partner countries.

1998-53. We agreed on principles and the need for adequate legislation to facilitate asset confiscation from convicted criminals, including ways to help each other trace, freeze and confiscate those assets, and where possible, in accordance with national legislation, share seized assets with other nations.

1998-54. We agree on the need to explore ways of combating official corruption arising from the large flows of criminal money.

1998-55. We are deeply concerned by all forms of trafficking of human beings including the smuggling of migrants. We agreed to joint action to combat trafficking in women and children, including efforts to prevent such crimes, protect victims and prosecute the traffickers.

1998-56. We commit ourselves to develop a multidisciplinary and comprehensive strategy, including principles and an action plan for future cooperation amongst ourselves and with third countries, including countries of origin, transit and destination, to tackle this problem. We consider the future comprehensive UN organised crime convention an important instrument for this purpose.

1998-57. We endorse joint law enforcement action against organised crime and welcome the cooperation between competent agencies in tackling criminal networks. We agree to pursue further action, particularly in dealing with major smuggling routes and targeting specific forms of financial fraud.

1998-58. We urge the Lyon Group to intensify its on-going work and ask our Ministers to report back to our next Summit on progress on the action plan on high tech crime, the steps taken against money laundering and the joint action on trafficking in human beings.

1998-59. For its part, the G8 is committed to partnership and shared responsibility in the international community to combat illicit drugs. This should include reinforced cooperation to curb illicit trafficking in drugs and chemical precursors, action to reduce demand in our countries, including through policies to reduce drug dependency, and support for a global approach to eradicating illicit crops.

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Non-Proliferation and Export Controls

1998-60. Our countries have been in the forefront of efforts to prevent proliferation, and we have worked closely together to support international non-proliferation regimes. We pledge to continue and strengthen this co-operation. As a key element of this co-operation, we reaffirm our commitment to ensure the effective implementation of export controls, in keeping with our undertakings within the non-proliferation regimes.

1998-61. We will deny any kind of assistance to programmes for weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery.

1998-62. To this end, we will where appropriate undertake and encourage the strengthening of laws, regulations and enforcement mechanisms.

1998-63. We will likewise enhance amongst ourselves and with other countries our co-operation on export control, including for instance on the exchange of information.

1998-64. We will ask our experts to focus on strengthening export control implementation.

1998-65. And we will broaden awareness among our industrial and business communities of export control requirements.

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Year 2000 Bug

1998-66. We agreed to take further urgent action and to share information, among ourselves and with others, that will assist in preventing disruption in the near and longer term.

1998-67. We shall work closely with business and organisations working in those sectors, who will bear much of the responsibility to address the problem.

1998-68. We will work together in international organisations, such as the World Bank to assist developing countries, and the OECD, to help solve this critical technological problem and prepare for the year 2000.

 

Statement on Northern Ireland (0 commitments)

- no commitments reached 

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Political Statement – Regional Issues (2 commitments)

Middle East Peace Process

1998-69. We remain determined to work with all the parties – Israel, the Palestinians, Syria, Lebanon – for a comprehensive peace.

Indian Nuclear Tests

1998-70. We underline our full commitment to the Non-Proliferation Treaty and to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty as the cornerstones of the global non-proliferation regime and the essential foundations for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament.

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G7 Chairman’s Statement (3 commitments)

Strengthening the Global Financial System

1998-71. We also ask our Finance Ministers to consider further how the existing global discussion fora, particularly the IMF’s Interim Committee, could be developed to permit a deeper and more effective dialogue.

Ukraine

1998-72. We renewed our resolve to work with Ukraine to implement strong financial and economic reform.

1998-73. We reaffirmed our commitment to the full implementation of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the G7 and Ukraine. 

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1999 Köln, Germany (46 commitments)

G7 Statement (7 commitments)

Köln Debt Initiative

1999-1. We also ask the Paris Club and other bilateral creditors to forgive commercial debt up to 90 % and more in individual cases if needed to achieve debt sustainability, in particular for the very poorest among these countries.

1999-2. In addition to these amounts, we call for full cancellation on a bilateral basis, through various options, of Official Development Assistance (ODA) debt.

1999-3. For poor countries not qualifying under the HIPC Initiative, the Paris Club could consider a unified 67 per cent reduction under Naples terms and, for other debtor countries, an increase of the existing limit on debt swap operations.

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Nuclear Safety/Ukraine

1999-4. We renew our commitment to the successful implementation of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the G7 and Ukraine.

1999-5. We have agreed that the G7 will help ensure the continued financing and the progress in the work under the Shelter Implementation Plan.

1999-6. To this end, we plan to hold a pledging conference before the next summit.

1999-7. We reaffirm our commitment to assist Ukraine, within the context of the MoU, in mobilizing funds for energy projects to help meet its power needs.

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G8 Final Communiqué (37 commitments)

Getting the World Economy on Track for Sustained Growth

1999-8. We agreed to intensify our dialogue within the G8 structures on the longer term social, structural and economic reform in Russia.

1999-9. To this end, we have instructed our personal representatives to ensure the overall continuity and cohesion of the work among the G8 on this subject. Particular emphasis should be given to concrete areas of cooperation such as small business development, strengthened cooperation with regions, health, the social impact of economic transformation.

1999-10. We agreed to deepen our cooperation on law enforcement, fighting organized crime and money laundering, including as they relate to capital flight.

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Building a World Trading System That Works for Everyone

1999-11. The multilateral trading system incorporated in the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been key to promoting international trade and investment and to increasing economic growth, employment and social progress. We therefore renew our strong support for the WTO and our commitment to an open trade and investment environment.

1999-12. We pledge to work for a successful ministerial meeting in Seattle in order to launch the new round.

1999-13. We will also seek a more effective way within the WTO for addressing the trade and environment relationship and promoting sustainable development and social and economic welfare worldwide.

1999-14. We therefore call on all nations to launch at the WTO Ministerial Conference in Seattle in December 1999 a new round of broad-based and ambitious negotiations with the aim of achieving substantial and manageable results.

1999-15. An effective new round of trade negotiations should help pave the way for the further integration of the developing countries into the world economy. In this context we reaffirm our commitment made in Birmingham last year to the least developed countries on improved market access.

1999-16. We also urge greater cooperation and policy coherence among international financial, economic, labor and environmental organizations.

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Designing Policies for More Employment

1999-17. One of the most urgent economic problems is the high level of unemployment in many countries. We reaffirm the importance of intensified international cooperation and enhanced efforts at the national level to design the right policies for more employment.

To strengthen the foundations for sustainable growth and job creation, we strongly emphasize a two-tiered approach:

1999-18. promoting structural re-forms to enhance the adaptability and competitiveness of our economies and to help the long-term unemployed to return to the labor market;

1999-19. pursuing macroeconomic policies for stability and growth and ensure that monetary and fiscal policies are well balanced.

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Strengthening Social Safeguards

1999-20. We commit ourselves to promote effective implementation of the International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Declaration On Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and its Follow-up.

1999-21. We further intend to step up work with developing countries to improve their capacity to meet their obligations.

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Deepening the Development Partnership

1999-22. Developing countries are essential partners in a globalized world. We are committed to working with them, especially with the poorest countries, to eradicate poverty, launch effective policies for sustainable development and develop their capacity to integrate better into the global economy, thus benefiting from the opportunities offered by globalization.

1999-23. We will continue to provide substantial support and assistance to developing and transition economies in support of their own efforts to open and diversify their economies, to democratize and improve governance, and to protect human rights.

1999-24. We will strive gradually to increase the volume of official development assistance (ODA), and to put special emphasis on countries best positioned to use it effectively.

1999-25. To ease future debt burdens and facilitate sustainable development, we agree to increase the share of grant-based financing in the ODA we provide to the least developed countries.

1999-26. We intend to step up work with developing countries and multilateral institutions to improve developing country capacity to exercise their rights and meet their obligations in the global trading system so as to ensure that they derive the full benefits of liberalized trade and thus contribute to global economic growth.

1999-27. We reaffirm our support for the OECD mandate to finalize a recommendation on untying aid to the least developed countries.

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Launching the Köln Debt Initiative

1999-28. While several means of financing are under consideration, credible progress in identifying additional funding possibilities is needed, and we stand ready to help with financing solutions. In this context we recognize the importance of fair burden sharing among creditors.

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Redoubling Efforts to Protect the Environment

1999-29. To underscore our commitment to sustainable development, we will step up our efforts to build a coherent global and environmentally responsive framework of multilateral agreements and institutions.

1999-30. We agree to continue to support the Multilateral Development Banks in making environmental considerations an integral part of their activities and we will do likewise when providing our own support.

1999-31. We will work within the OECD towards common environmental guidelines for export finance agencies. We aim to complete this work by the 2001 G8 Summit.

1999-32. We will work towards timely progress in implementing the Buenos Aires Plan of Action with a view to early entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol.

1999-33. We underline the importance of taking action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rational and efficient use of energy and through other cost-effective means. To this end, we commit ourselves to develop and implement domestic measures including under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

1999-34. We will also promote increasing global participation of developing countries in limiting greenhouse gas emissions.

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Promoting Non-proliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament

1999-35. Strengthening the international non-proliferation regime and disarmament measures is one of our most important international priorities. We are committed to increased resources for these purposes and encourage all other interested countries to join us.

1999-36. We affirm our intention to establish arrangements for the safe management of fissile material.

1999-37. We strongly support the concrete initiatives being undertaken by G8 countries and others for scientific and technical cooperation necessary to support future large-scale disposition programs. We recognize that an international approach to financing will be required involving both public and private funds, and we will review potential increases in our own resource commitments prior to the next G8 Summit.

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Tackling Global Challenges
Infectious Diseases

1999-38. We are concerned at the continuing global spread of AIDS. We reaffirm the need to continue efforts to combat AIDS at the national and international level through a combined strategy of prevention, vaccine development and appropriate therapy.

1999-39. We also pledge to continue our national and international efforts in the fight against infectious and parasitic diseases, such as malaria, polio and tuberculosis, and their drug-resistant forms.

1999-40. In particular we will continue to support the endeavors of the World Health Organization and its initiatives "Roll Back Malaria" and "Stop TB".

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Drugs

1999-41. We reaffirm our commitment to tackle the drug issue, in particular through active implementation of the conclusions of the 1998 UN General Assembly Special Session on the World Drug Program.

1999-42. We reaffirm our commitment to strengthen cooperation in the field of nuclear safety. We welcome the concerted efforts to address the Year 2000 computer problem ("Millennium Bug") in this area. With regard to the Nuclear Safety Account, we continue to attach great importance to full and timely implementation of the grant agreements.

Y2K

1999-43. It will be important, as the date approaches, for responsible bodies to have in place contingency plans to cope with system failures that may occur in the most sensitive areas despite intensive preparations. We will maintain close cooperation among ourselves and with others on this as well as other aspects of the problem.

1999-44. We shall convene a special G8 conference on contingency planning later this year.

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G8-Statement on Regional Issues (2 commitments)

Kosovo

1999-45. We affirm our commitment to a meeting of the international donor community in July to address short-term humanitarian and other needs for Kosovo, and a subsequent meeting in the fall after a full assessment of needs has been developed pursuant to the assistance coordination process chaired by the European Commission and the World Bank.

Nigeria

1999-46. The G8 warmly welcomes Nigeria’s return to civilian rule and democracy. The G8 will assist positive change in Nigeria by continued support for democracy and human rights, good governance, transparency and accountability and the reduction of poverty.

 

Köln Charter Aims and Ambitions for Lifelong Learning (0 commitments)

- no commitments reached

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2000 Okinawa, Japan (105 commitments)

G7 Statement (12 commitments)

Strengthening the International Financial Architecture

2000-1. "We will continue to work together with other members of the international community to further strengthen the international financial architecture".

2000-2. : "We are determined to strengthen our efforts on the implementation of international codes and standards, including through their incorporation in IMF surveillance".

2000-3. "To adapt to the globalization of capital markets, we attach priority to early progress in achieving a streamlined, incentive-based structure for IMF lending as set out by our Finance Ministers".

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Progress of the Enhanced HIPC Initiative

2000-4. "We agree to strengthen our efforts to help them prepare and come forward for debt relief, by asking our Ministers to make early contact with the countries in conflict to encourage them to create the right conditions to participate in the HIPC Initiative."

2000-5. "We will work together to ensure that as many countries as possible reach their Decision Points, in line with the targets set in Cologne, giving due consideration to the progress of economic reforms and the need to ensure that the benefits of debt relief are targeted to assist the poor and most vulnerable".

2000-6. "We reaffirm our commitment to provide 100% debt reduction of ODA claims, and newly commit to 100% debt reduction of eligible commercial claims. We welcome the announcement made by some non-G7 countries that they too will provide 100% debt relief, and we urge other donors to follow suit".

2000-7. "We reaffirm our commitment to make available as quickly as possible the resources we have pledged (to the HIPC Trust Fund). In this context, we recognize the importance of fair burden sharing among creditors."

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Actions against Abuse of the Global Financial System

2000-8. "We are ready to give our advice and provide, where appropriate, our technical assistance to jurisdictions that commit to making improvements to their regimes".

2000-9. "We are prepared to act together, when required and appropriate, to implement coordinated counter-measures against those NCCTs that do not take steps to reform their systems appropriately, including the possibility to condition or restrict financial transactions with those jurisdictions and to condition or restrict support from IFIs to them".

2000-10. "We will take steps to encourage jurisdictions to make the necessary changes and provide technical assistance where appropriate. Where jurisdictions fail to meet certain standards and are not committed to enhancing their level of compliance with international standards, we will also take measures to protect the international financial system from the effects of these failures".

Nuclear Safety/Ukraine

2000-11. "We reaffirm our commitment made at the Cologne Summit to continue our support for the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP). We welcome the results of the Pledging Conference in July to ensure full implementation of the SIP."

2000-12. "We affirm our commitment in line with the Memorandum of Understanding to assist the Ukraine in the preparation and implementation of energy projects based on least cost principles".

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Commitments from the G8 Leaders Communiqué (93 commitments)

World Economy

2000-13. "We must renew our unwavering commitment to structural change in our own economies, including greater competition and more adaptable labour markets, underpinned by appropriate macro-economic policies".

Information and Communications Technology (IT)

2000-14. "Acting in concert, we will maximize the benefits of IT and ensure that they are spread to those at present with limited access."

2000-15. "In support of these goals, we commit ourselves to pursuing the aims and ambitions set out in the Okinawa Charter on Global Information Society."

2000-16. "We will set up a Digital Opportunities Task Force (dot force), which will be asked to report to our next meeting its findings and recommendations on global action to bridge the international information and knowledge divide".

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Development

2000-17. "We commit ourselves to the agreed international development goals, including the overarching objective of reducing the share of the world’s population living in extreme poverty to half its 1990 level by 2015."

2000-18. "We will work with developing countries to put in place policies, programs and institutions that offer people a fair chance to better to their lives….and will work in the UN and other for a to further reduce poverty, especially in LDCs".

2000-19. "Trade and investment are critical to promoting sustainable economic growth and reducing poverty. We commit ourselves to put a higher priority on trade-related capacity-building activities".

We are committed to mobilizing the instruments and resources of the international community to support and reinforce the efforts of these countries to combat and overcome these challenges, with particular priority on promoting equitable distribution of the benefits of growth through sound social policies, including health and education. To this end, we have agreed to:

2000-20. push forward the HIPC debt initiative

2000-21. provide significantly improved access to our markets

2000-22. strengthen the effectiveness of our ODA

2000-23. implement an ambitious plan on infectious diseases, notably HIV/AIDS, malaria and TB

2000-24. follow-up vigorously the conclusions of the recent Dakar Conference on Education by ensuring that additional resources are made available for basic education

2000-25. address the widening digital divide

2000-26. implement measures to prevent conflict, including by addressing the issue of illicit trade in diamonds

2000-27. "We commit ourselves to strengthening the effectiveness of our ODA in support of countries’ own efforts to tackle poverty, including through national strategies for poverty reduction".

2000-28. "We will take a long-term approach favouring those countries where governments have demonstrated a commitment to improve the well-being of their people through accountable and transparent management of resources devoted to development."

2000-29. "To achieve increased effectiveness of ODA, we resolve to untie our aid to the LDCs on the basis of progress made in the OECD to date and a fair burden-sharing mechanism that we will agree with our OECD partners. We believe that this agreement should come into effect on 1 January 2002".

2000-30. "We will also seek to demonstrate to the public that well-targeted ODA get results, and on that basis will strive to give increased priority to such assistance".

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Debt

2000-31. "We agree to strengthen our efforts to help them (HIPICs) prepare and come forward for debt relief, by asking our Ministers to make early contact with the countries in conflict to encourage them to create the right conditions to participate in the HIPC initiative."

2000-32. "We will work together to ensure that as many countries as possible reach their Decision Points, in line with the targets set in Cologne, giving due consideration to the progress of economic reforms and the need to ensure that the benefits of debt relief are targeted to assist the poor and most vulnerable."

2000-33. "We will work expeditiously together with HIPCs and the IFIs to realize the expectation that 20 countries will reach the Decision Point within the framework of the Enhanced HIPC initiative by the end of this year."

2000-34. "We for our part will promote more responsible lending and borrowing practices to ensure that HIPCs will not again be burdened by unsupportable debt."

2000-35. "We reaffirm our commitment to make available as quickly as possible the resources we have pledged in the spirit of fair burden sharing".

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Health

We therefore commit ourselves to working in strengthened partnership with governments, the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international organizations, industry (notably pharmaceutical companies), academic institutions, NGOs and other relevant actors in civil society to deliver three critical UN targets:

2000-36. reduce the number of HIV/AIDS-infected young people by 25% by 2010

2000-37. reduce TB deaths and prevalence of the disease by 50% by 2010

2000-38. reduce the burden of disease associated with malaria by 50% by 2010

In order to achieve this ambitious agenda, our partnership must aim to cover:

2000-39. Mobilizing additional resources ourselves, and calling on the MDBs to expand their own assistance to the maximum extent possible;

2000-40. Giving priority to the development of equitable and effective health systems, expanded immunization, nutrition and micro-nutrients and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases;

2000-41. Promoting political leadership through enhanced high-level dialogue designed to raise public awareness in the affected countries;

2000-42. Committing to support innovative partnerships, including with the NGOs, the private sector and multilateral organizations;

2000-43. Working to make existing cost-effective interventions, including key drugs, vaccines, treatments and preventive measures more universally available and affordable in developing countries;

2000-44. Addressing the complex issue of access to medicines in developing countries, and assessing obstacles being faced by developing countries in that regard;

2000-45. Strengthening cooperation in the area of basic research and development of new drugs, vaccines and other international public health goods.

2000-46. "We will convene a conference in the autumn this year in Japan to deliver agreement on a new strategy to harness our commitments."

2000-47. "We will take stock of progress at the Genoa Summit next year and will work with the UN to organize a conference in 2001 focusing on strategies to facilitate access to AIDS treatment and care."

2000-48. "We therefore commit ourselves to strengthen efforts bilaterally and together with the international organizations and private sector donors to achieve the goals of universal primary education by 2015 and gender equality in schooling by 2005."

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Trade

2000-49. "We commit ourselves to playing a leading role by strengthening our support to developing country members for capacity building in line with their individual needs".

2000-50. "We are firmly committed to a new round of WTO trade negotiations with an ambitious, balanced and inclusive agenda, reflecting the interests of all WTO members".

2000-51. "We agree to intensify our close and fruitful cooperation in order to try together with other WTO members to launch such a round during the course of this year."

2000-52. "We therefore welcome the progress made on China’s accession to the WTO and support the efforts of other applicants toward early accession."

Cultural Diversity

2000-53. "We shall strive to promote the digitalization of cultural heritage through, for example, fostering international links between national museum systems, with a view to enhancing public access."

2000-54. "We encourage competent authorities to promote exchange of students, teachers, researchers and administrators with the goal of doubling the rate of mobility over the next ten years."

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Crime and Drugs

2000-55. "We reaffirm our support for the adoption by the end of 2000 of the UN Transnational Organized Crime Convention and three related Protocols on firearms, smuggling of migrants and trafficking in persons for the establishment of an effective legal framework against transnational organized crime (TOC)."

2000-56. "We appreciate the work undertaken by the Lyon Group in the fight against TOC, and request them to report back to our next meeting".

2000-57. "We also endorse the results of the Moscow G8 Ministerial Conference on Combating Transnational Organized Crime".

2000-58. "We will promote dialogue with industry, including at the joint Berlin meeting in October"

2000-59. "We remain committed to reducing demand in our own countries, and to countering the threat from the production and trafficking of illicit drugs globally".

2000-60. "We will work with other countries, the UN system and other groups to reduce both supply and demand."

2000-61. "We will support regional initiatives to end narcotics production and trafficking."

We are also committed to strengthen international cooperation to:

2000-62. Combat the illicit diversion of precursor chemicals for the production of illegal drugs;

2000-63. Address the growing new threat from amphetamines and other synthetic drugs, and will convene an ad hoc meeting of drugs experts by the end of this year;

2000-64. Accelerate the pace of work on asset confiscation;

2000-65. Examine, by means of an international conference hosted by the UK, the global economy of illegal drugs.

2000-66. "We hereby declare our commitment to take all necessary national and international action to effectively combat financial crime, in line with international standards".

2000-67. "We renew our commitment to combat corruption through increased transparency"

2000-68. "We call for the ratification and effective implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention by all signatory parties".

2000-69. "We will prepare for the launch of negotiations in the UN on a new instrument again corruption, and instruct the Lyon Group to pursue work on this issue."

2000-70. "We must assist in capacity-building efforts in the more vulnerable jurisdictions to strengthen their criminal justice systems."

2000-71. "We reaffirm the need for effective cooperation among competent authorities and for measures to be taken in cooperation with civil society."

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Aging

2000-72. "The central challenge is to promote a culture that values the experience and knowledge that come with age. To this end, we will:

2000-73. Make further efforts to remove inappropriate disincentives for people below retirement age to stay in the labour market;

2000-74. Counter age prejudice in employment;

2000-75. Encourage life-long learning so that people can remain active through the accelerating transition toward an information society;

2000-76. Pursue healthy ageing policies that permit a continued high quality of life;

2000-77. Seek to increase relevant cross-national society in promoting older people’s participation in community and volunteer activities.

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Biotechnology/Food Safety

2000-78. "We are committed to continued efforts to make systems responsive to the growing public awareness of food safety issues, the potential risks associated with food, the accelerating pace of developments in biotechnology, and the increasing cross-border movement of food and agricultural products."

2000-79. "We will work to strengthen our support for their capacity building to harness the potentials of biotechnology, and encourage research and development as well as data and information sharing in technologies, including those that address global food security, health, nutritional and environmental challenges and are adapted to specific conditions in these countries."

2000-80. "We will explore, in consultation with international organizations and interested bodies including scientific academies, the way to integrate the best scientific knowledge available into the global process of consensus-building on biotechnology and other aspects of food and crop safety."

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Human Genome

2000-81. "We call for the further rapid release of all raw fundamental data on human DNA sequences as such".

2000-82. "We also emphasize the importance of pursuing the post genome-sequence research on the basis of multilateral collaboration."

2000-83. "We encourage further efforts in relevant international fora to achieve broad harmonization of patenting policies of biotechnological inventions."

2000-84. "We also welcome the conclusion of the Cartagena Protocol on Biodiversity, and encourage the parties concerned to work for its early entry into force".

2000-85. "We will endeavor will all our partners to prepare a future-oriented agenda for Rio+10 in 2002"

2000-86. "We are determined to achieve a successful outcome at the Sixth Conference of the Parties to the FCCC (COP6), in order to achieve the goals of the Kyoto Protocol through undertaking strong domestic actions and supplemental flexibility mechanisms."

2000-87. "We therefore call on all stakeholders to identify the barriers and solutions to elevating the level of renewable energy supply and distribution in developing countries."

2000-88. "We attach particular importance to projects that help indigenous and local communities. We will also examine how best we can combat illegal logging, including export and procurement practices."

2000-89. "We reaffirm our commitment to develop common environmental guidelines, drawing on relevant MDB experience, for export credit agencies by the 2001 G8 Summit. We will co-operate to reinvigorate and intensify our work to fulfil the Cologne mandate."

2000-90. We will jointly cooperate with the IMO to improve maritime safety".

2000-91. "We endorse efforts by the IMO to strengthen safety standards, in particular, the ships carrying dangerous or polluting cargo, and to verify implementation and enforcement of the application of international standards by flag States."

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Conflict Prevention

2000-92. We commit ourselves to work for their implementation particularly with respect to economic development and conflict prevent, children in conflict, and international civilian police."

2000-93. "We therefore call for an international conference, whose results shall be submitted to the UN, building on the UN Security Council Resolution 1306 and inter alia the "Kimberley" process launched by the Government of South Africa, to consider practical approaches to breaking the link between the illicit trade in diamonds and armed conflict, including consideration of an international agreement on certification for rough diamonds."

2000-94. "We invite the international community to exercise restraint in conventional arms exports, and are committed to work jointly to this end".

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Disarmament, Non-proliferation and Arms Control

2000-95. "We are determined to implement the conclusions reached at this Conference, including the early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the immediate commencement and the conclusion within five years of negotiations for the Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty."

2000-96. "We remain committed to promoting universal adherence to and compliance with the NPT."

2000-97. "Our goal for the next Summit is to develop an international financing plan for plutonium management and disposition based on detailed project plan, and a multilateral framework to coordinate this cooperation."

2000-98. "We will expand our cooperation to other interested countries in order to gain the widest possible international support, and will explore the potential for both public and private funding."

2000-99. "We strongly support the important work of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and will consider the proposal for a Global Monitoring System".

2000-100. "We will work to increase the level of international contributions to the Russian chemical weapons destruction programme".

2000-101. "We commit ourselves to work with others to conclude the negotiations on the Verification Protocol to strengthen the Biological Weapons Convention as early as possible in 2001".

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Terrorism

2000-102. "We call for the urgent strengthening of international cooperation, in particular in exchanges of counter-terrorism information, improving measures against the financing of terrorist activities, and working together to bring terrorists to justice."

2000-103. "We call for all states to become parties to the twelve international counter-terrorism conventions to enhance international cooperation against terrorism."

2000-104. "We will continue to raise this (concern at the increased number of terrorist acts) in our bilateral contacts, carefully monitor developments and maintain close cooperation between us".

2000-105. "We call for full implementation of the UNSCR 1267".

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2001 Genoa, Italy (58 commitments)

G7 Statement (10 commitments)

World Economy

2001-1. We pledge to pursue policies that will contribute to global growth by enhancing strong productivity growth in a sound macroeconomic environment, through structural reform, free trade and strengthened international economic cooperation.

Launching a New Trade Round

2001-2. We pledge today to engage personally and jointly in the launch of a new ambitious Round of global trade negotiations at the Fourth WTO Ministerial Conference in Doha, Qatar this November.

2001-3. We are committed to working with developing countries, including the least developed, to ensure that the new Round addresses their priorities through improved market access and sounder, more transparent trade rules.

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Strengthening the International Financial System

2001-4. Increasing global growth and prosperity depends crucially on a sound and stable international financial system. We are united in our determination to continue to strengthen it to prevent financial crises, to limit the impact of those that inevitably do occur, and to tackle financial abuses.

2001-5. In particular, the international financial institutions and the G7 countries should stand ready to help countries adopt the policies required to ensure sustained access to capital markets.

2001-6. We also support our finance ministers’ suggestions to further develop the framework for private sector involvement.

2001-7. We support a meaningful replenishment of IDA and, in that context, we will explore the increased use of grants for priority social investments, such as education and health.

2001-8. We reaffirm our support for the multilateral effort against abuses of the global financial system and endorse our finance ministers’ recommendations to address this challenge.

HIPC

2001-9. We have all agreed as a minimum to provide 100% debt reduction of official development assistance (ODA) and eligible commercial claims for qualifying HIPC countries.

2001-10. We pledge to continue working together to ensure that the benefits of debt relief are targeted to assist the poor and most vulnerable.

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G8 Final Communiqué (43 commitments)

A Strategic Approach to Poverty Reduction

2001-11. We will continue to provide effective development assistance to help developing countries’ own efforts to build long-term prosperity.

We shall help developing countries promote:

2001-12. accountability and transparency in the public sector

2001-13. legal frameworks and corporate governance regimes to fight corruption

2001-14. safeguards against the misappropriation of public funds and their diversion into productive uses

2001-15. access to legal systems for all citizens, independence of the judiciary, and legal provisions enabling private sector activity

2001-16. active involvement of civil society and NGOs

2001-17. freedom of economic activities

We for our part will:

2001-18. implement fully the OECD Bribery Convention

2001-19. support efforts in the UN to pursue an effective instrument against corruption

2001-20. encourage Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) to help recipient countries strengthen public expenditure and budget management.

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Debt Relief and Beyond

2001-21. In particular we look to countries affected by conflict to turn away from violence. When they do, we confirm that we will strengthen our efforts to help them take the measures needed to receive debt relief.

2001-22. . We confirm our pledge made at the UN LDC III Conference to work towards duty-free and quota-free access for all products originating in the least developed countries.

We will better co-ordinate our trade related assistance to:

2001-23. provide bilateral assistance on technical standards, customs systems, legislation needed for World Trade Organisation (WTO) membership, the protection of intellectual property rights, and human resource development

2001-24. support the work of the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance.

2001-25. We commit ourselves to implement the landmark OECD-DAC Recommendation on Untying Aid to LDCs which should increase aid effectiveness and achieve more balanced effort-sharing among donors.

2001-26. To meet that commitment and to respond to the appeal of the UN General Assembly, we have launched with the UN Secretary-General a new Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. We are determined to make the Fund operational before the end of the year. We have committed $1.3 billion.

2001-27. In the context of the new Global Fund, we will work with the pharmaceutical industry and with affected countries to facilitate the broadest possible provision of drugs in an affordable and medically effective manner.

2001-28. At the same time, we reaffirm our commitment to strong and effective intellectual property rights protection as a necessary incentive for research and development of life-saving drugs.

2001-29. We reaffirm our commitment to help countries meet the Dakar Framework for Action goal of universal primary education by 2015.

2001-30. We will help foster assessment systems to measure progress, identify best practices and ensure accountability for results.

2001-31. We will also focus on teacher training.

2001-32. Building on the work of the G8 Digital Opportunities Task Force (dot.force), we will work to expand the use of information and communications technology (ICT) to train teachers in best practices and strengthen education strategies.

2001-33. We will also work with the International Labour Organisation (ILO) to support efforts to fight child labour and we will develop incentives to increase school enrolment.

2001-34. We will establish a task force of senior G8 officials to advise us on how best to pursue the Dakar goals in co-operation with developing countries, relevant international organisations and other stakeholders. The task force will provide us with recommendations in time for our next meeting.

2001-35. We shall endeavour to develop capacity in poor countries, integrating programmes into national strategies and increasing training in agricultural science.

2001-36. We are committed to study, share and facilitate the responsible use of biotechnology in addressing development needs.

2001-37. We will support the crucial role international organisations and NGOs play in relief operations.

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Digital Opportunities

2001-38. We will continue to support the process and encourage all stakeholders to demonstrate ownership, to mobilise expertise and resources and to build on this successful co-operation.

2001-39. We will review the implementation of the Genoa Plan of Action at our next Summit on the basis of a report by the G8 Presidency.

2001-40. We also encourage development of an Action Plan on how e-Government can strengthen democracy and the rule of law by empowering citizens and making the provision of essential government services more efficient.

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Environment

2001-41. We are determined to meet our national commitments and our obligations under the Convention through a variety of flexible means, drawing on the power of markets and technology.

2001-42. In this context, we agree on the importance of intensifying co-operation on climate-related science and research.

2001-43. We shall promote co-operation between our countries and developing countries on technology transfer and capacity building.

2001-44. To that end, we are participating constructively in the resumed Sixth Conference of the Parties in Bonn (COP6) and will continue to do so in all relevant fora.

2001-45. We will ensure that renewable energy sources are adequately considered in our national plans and encourage others to do so as well.

2001-46. We will help developing countries strengthen institutional capacity and market-oriented national strategies that can attract private sector investment in renewable energy and other clean technologies.

2001-47. We will work in partnership with developing countries for an inclusive preparatory process with civil society on a forward looking and substantial agenda with action-oriented results.

2001-48. We are committed to ensuring that our Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) adhere to high environmental standards.

2001-49. We therefore agreed in Okinawa to develop common environmental guidelines for ECAs, drawing on relevant MDB experience. Building on the progress made since last year, we commit to reach agreement in the OECD by the end of the year on a Recommendation that fulfils the Okinawa mandate.

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Food Safety

2001-50. Fully aware of the paramount importance of food safety to our peoples, we will continue to support a transparent, scientific and rules-based approach and will intensify our efforts to achieve greater global consensus on how precaution should be applied to food safety in circumstances where available scientific information is incomplete or contradictory.

Employment

2001-51. In the firm belief that economic performance and social inclusion are mutually dependent, we commit to implement policies in line with the recommendations of the G8 Labour Ministers Conference held in Torino last year.

Combatting Transnational Organized Crime and Drugs

2001-52. We reaffirm our commitment to combat transnational organised crime. To this end, we strongly endorse the outcome of the G8 Justice and Interior Ministers Conference held in Milano this year.

2001-53. Following up on the G8 ad hoc Meeting of Drug Experts held in Miyazaki last year and the recent London Conference on the global economy of illegal drugs, we will strengthen efforts to curb the trafficking and use of illegal drugs.

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G8 Statement on Regional Issues (2 commitments)

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

2001-54. We support the idea of convening a donors conference following the establishment of durable peace and a successful conclusion of a political agreement between the parties.

Korean Peninsula

2001-55. We reaffirm our support for the implementation of the Agreed Framework, including KEDO.

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G8 Genova Plan for Africa (2 commitments)

2001-56. We have decided today to forge a new partnership to address issues crucial to African development. We are committed to promoting this objective with our African partners and in multilateral fora—in the UN, the World Bank and the IMF, and in the new Round of WTO negotiations. Our partnership will support the key themes of the New African Initiative, including:

• Democracy and political governance

• Prevention and reduction of conflict

• Human development, by investing in health and education, and tackling HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria, including through the Global AIDS and Health Fund

• Information and communications technologies

• Economic and corporate governance

• Action against corruption

• Stimulating private investment in Africa

• Increasing trade within Africa and between Africa and the world

• Combating hunger and increasing food security

2001-57. To take this process forward, each of us will designate a high level personal representative to liase with committed African Leaders on the development of a concrete Action Plan to be approved at the G8 Summit next year under the leadership of Canada.

 

G8 Statement on the Middle East (0 commitments)

- no commitments reached

 

Statement by the G8 Leaders: Death in Genoa (1 commitment)

2001-58. It is of vital importance that democratically elected leaders, legitimately representing millions of people can meet to discuss areas of common concern. We are firmly determined to carry on our dialogue with the representatives of civil society.

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2002 Kananaskis, Canada (187 commitments)

Statement by G7 Leaders (3 commitments)

Completing the Financing of the HIPC Initiative

2002-1. We acknowledged the threat to sustainable exit from debt due to under-financing of the Initiative and we committed to work with other donor countries and the international financial institutions (IFIs) to address this issue.

Debt Sustainability at the Completion Point

2002-2. We committed to work with other donor countries and IFIs to ensure that the need for financial resources for this purpose is met.

2002-3. Finally, we agreed on the need for bilateral donors to consider financing HIPCs and HIPC "graduates" primarily through grants for a sustained period, and to refrain from supporting unproductive expenditures.

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The Kananaskis Summit Chair’s Summary (12 commitments)

Terrorism

2002-4. We are committed to sustained and comprehensive actions to deny support or sanctuary to terrorists, to bring terrorists to justice, and to reduce the threat of terrorist attacks.

2002-5. We agreed on a set of six non-proliferation Principles aimed at preventing terrorists - or those who harbour them - from acquiring or developing nuclear, chemical, radiological and biological weapons; missiles; and related materials, equipment or technologies.

2002-6. We launched a new G8 Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction, under which we will undertake cooperative projects on the basis of agreed guidelines. We committed to raise up to US$ 20 billion to support such projects over the next ten years.

Development

2002-7. We agreed to resist protectionist pressures and stressed our commitment to work with developing countries to ensure the successful conclusion of the Doha Development Agenda by January 1, 2005.

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Sustainable Development

2002-8. We agreed on the importance of reaffirming the Doha Agenda and the Monterrey Consensus and to work at the upcoming Johannesburg Summit to produce meaningful partnerships for sustainable development and measurable results.

HIPC

2002-9. We will fund our share of the shortfall in the enhanced HIPC initiative, recognizing that this shortfall will be up to US $1 billion.

Africa

2002-10. Assuming strong African policy commitments, and given recent assistance trends, we believe that in aggregate half or more of our new development assistance commitments announced at Monterrey could be directed to African nations that govern justly, invest in their own people and promote economic freedom.

2002-11. We underlined the devastating consequences for Africa’s development of diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. In addition to our ongoing commitments to combat these diseases, we committed to provide sufficient resources to eradicate polio by 2005.

2002-12. We agreed to work with African partners to deliver a joint plan by 2003 for the development of African capability to undertake peace support operations.

2002-13. We will continue our dialogue with our African partners. At our next Summit, we will review progress on the implementation of the G8 Africa Action Plan on the basis of a final report from our Personal Representatives for Africa.

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Regional Issues

Finally, we discussed several regional issues that have significant implications for international peace and security.

2002-14. We stressed our commitment to work for peace in the Middle East, based on our vision of two states, Israel and Palestine, living side by side within secure and recognized borders. We agreed on the urgency of reform of Palestinian institutions and its economy, and of free and fair elections.

2002-15. We support the Transitional Authority of Afghanistan. We will fulfil our Tokyo Conference commitments and will work to eradicate opium production and trafficking.

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G8 Africa Action Plan, June 27, 2002 (132 commitments)

2002-16. In support of the NEPAD objectives, we each undertake to establish enhanced partnerships with African countries whose performance reflects the NEPAD commitments.

2002-17. This will lead us to focus our efforts on countries that demonstrate a political and financial commitment to good governance and the rule of law, investing in their people, and pursuing policies that spur economic growth and alleviate poverty. We will match their commitment with a commitment on our own part to promote peace and security in Africa, to boost expertise and capacity, to encourage trade and direct growth-oriented investment, and to provide more effective official development assistance.

2002-18. We will continue to support African efforts to encourage public engagement in the NEPAD and we will continue to consult with our African partners on how we can best assist their own efforts.

2002-19. G8 governments are committed to mobilize and energize global action, marshal resources and expertise, and provide impetus in support of the NEPAD’s objectives.

2002-20. As G8 partners, we will undertake mutually reinforcing actions to help Africa accelerate growth and make lasting gains against poverty.

2002-21. While we will focus particular attention on enhanced-partnership countries, we will also work with countries that do not yet meet the standards of NEPAD but which are clearly committed to and working towards its implementation.

2002-22. Assuming strong African policy commitments, and given recent assistance trends,we believe that in aggregate half or more of our new development assistance could be directed to African nations that govern justly, invest in their own people and promote economic freedom.

2002-23. In this way we will support the objectives of the NEPAD. This will help ensure that no country genuinely committed to poverty reduction, good governance and economic reform will be denied the chance to achieve the Millennium Goals through lack of finance.

2002-24. We will pursue this Action Plan in our individual and collective capacities, and through the international institutions to which we belong.

2002-25. We will continue to maintain a constructive dialogue with our African partners in order to achieve effective implementation of our Action Plan and to support the objectives of the NEPAD.

2002-26. We will take the necessary steps to ensure the effective implementation of our Action Plan and will review progress at our next Summit based on a final report from our Personal Representatives for Africa.

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Promoting Peace and Security

We are determined to make conflict prevention and resolution a top priority, and therefore we commit to:

Supporting African efforts to resolve the principal armed conflicts on the continent – including by:

2002-27. Providing additional support to efforts to bring peace to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan, and to consolidate peace in Angola and Sierra Leone within the next year;

2002-28. Assisting with programmes of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration; at the appropriate time,

2002-29. Taking joint action to support post-conflict development in the Great Lakes Region and Sudan; and,

2002-30. Endorsing the proposals from the UN Secretary-General to set up, with the Secretary-General and other influential partners, contact groups and similar mechanisms to work with African countries to resolve specific African conflicts.

Providing technical and financial assistance so that, by 2010, African countries and regional and sub-regional organizations are able to engage more effectively to prevent and resolve violent conflict on the continent, and undertake peace support operations in accordance with the United Nations Charter – including by:

2002-31. Continuing to work with African partners to deliver a joint plan, by 2003, for the development of African capability to undertake peace support operations, including at the regional level;

2002-32. Training African peace support forces including through the development of regional centres of excellence for military and civilian aspects of conflict prevention and peace support, such as the Kofi Annan International Peace Training Centre; and,

2002-33. Better coordinating our respective peacekeeping training initiatives.

Supporting efforts by African countries and the United Nations to better regulate the activities of arms brokers and traffickers and to eliminate the flow of illicit weapons to and within Africa – including by:

2002-34. Developing and adopting common guidelines to prevent the illegal supply of arms to Africa;

2002-35. Providing assistance in regional trans-border cooperation to this end.

2002-36. Supporting African efforts to eliminate and remove antipersonnel mines.

Working with African governments, civil society and others to address the linkage between armed conflict and the exploitation of natural resources – including by:

2002-37. Supporting United Nations and other initiatives to monitor and address the illegal exploitation and international transfer of natural resources from Africa which fuel armed conflicts, including mineral resources, petroleum, timber and water;

2002-38. Supporting voluntary control efforts such as the Kimberley Process for diamonds, and encouraging the adoption of voluntary principles of corporate social responsibility by those involved in developing Africa’s national resources;

2002-39. Working to ensure better accountability and greater transparency with respect to those involved in the import or export of Africa’s natural resources from areas of conflict;

2002-40. Promoting regional management of trans-boundary natural resources, including by supporting the Congo Basin Initiative and trans-border river basin commissions.

Providing more effective peace-building support to societies emerging from or seeking to prevent armed conflicts – including by:

2002-41. Supporting effective African-led reconciliation efforts, including both pre-conflict and post conflict initiatives; and,

2002-42. Encouraging more effective coordination and cooperation among donors and international institutions in support of peace-building and conflict prevention efforts – particularly with respect to the effective disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of former combatants, the collection and destruction of small arms, and the special needs of women and children, including child soldiers.

2002-43. Working to enhance African capacities to protect and assist war-affected populations and facilitate the effective implementation in Africa of United Nations Security Council resolutions relating to civilians, women and children in armed conflict – including by supporting African countries hosting, assisting and protecting large refugee populations

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Strengthening Institutions and Governance

The task of strengthening institutions and governance is thus both urgent and of paramount importance, and for this reason, we commit to:

Supporting the NEPAD’s priority political governance objectives – including by:

2002-44. Expanding capacity-building programmes related to political governance in Africa focusing on the NEPAD priority areas of: improving administrative and civil services, strengthening parliamentary oversight, promoting participatory decision-making, and judicial reform;

2002-45.Supporting African efforts to ensure that electoral processes are credible and transparent, and that elections are conducted in a manner that is free and fair and in accordance with the NEPAD’s commitment to uphold and respect "global standards of democracy";

2002-46. Supporting African efforts to involve parliamentarians and civil society in all aspects of the NEPAD process; and,

2002-47.Supporting the reform of the security sector through assisting the development of an independent judiciary and democratically controlled police structures.

Strengthening capacity-building programmes related to economic and corporate governance in Africa focusing on the NEPAD priority areas of implementing sound macro-economic strategies, strengthening public financial management and accountability, protecting the integrity of monetary and financial systems, strengthening accounting and auditing systems, and developing an effective corporate governance framework – including by:

2002-35.Supporting international and African organizations such as the African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF) and the African Regional Technical Assistance Centres (AFRITACs) initiative of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in expanding regionally-oriented technical assistance and capacity-building programmes in Africa; and,

2002-48. Financing African-led research on economic governance issues (through the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), sub-regional and regional organizations, and other African institutions and organizations with relevant expertise).

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Supporting African peer-review arrangements – including by:

2002-49. Encouraging cooperation with respect to peer-review practices, modalities and experiences between the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the ECA, including the participation by the ECA in the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) peer-review process where the countries under review so agree;

2002-50. Encouraging, where appropriate, substantive information sharing between Africa and its partners with respect to items under peer-review; and,

2002-51. Supporting regional organizations in developing tools to facilitate peer-review processes.

Giving increased attention to and support for African efforts to promote and protect human rights – including by:

2002-52. Supporting human rights activities and national, regional and sub-regional human rights institutions in Africa;

2002-53. Supporting African efforts to implement human rights obligations undertaken by African governments; and,

2002-54. Supporting African efforts to promote reconciliation and to ensure accountability for violations of human rights and humanitarian law, including genocide, crimes against humanity and other war crimes.

Supporting African efforts to promote gender equality and the empowerment of women – including by:

2002-55. Supporting African efforts to achieve equal participation of African women in all aspects of the NEPAD process and in fulfilling the NEPAD objectives; and,

2002-56. Supporting the application of gender main-streaming in all policies and programmes.

Intensifying support for the adoption and implementation of effective measures to combat corruption, bribery and embezzlement – including by:

2002-57. Working to secure the early establishment of a UN Convention on Corruption, and the early ratification of the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime;

2002-58. Strengthening and assisting the implementation and monitoring of the OECD Convention on Bribery and assisting anti-bribery and anti-corruption programmes through the international financial institutions (IFIs) and the multilateral development banks;

2002-59. Intensifying international cooperation to recover illicitly acquired financial assets;

2002-60. Supporting voluntary anti-corruption initiatives, such as the DAC Guidelines, the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, and the UN Global Compact;

2002-61. Supporting the role of parliamentarians in addressing corruption and promoting good governance; and,

2002-62. Assisting African countries in their efforts to combat money laundering, including supporting World Bank/IMF efforts to improve coordination in the delivery of technical assistance to combat money laundering and terrorist financing in African countries.

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Fostering Trade, Investment, Economic Growth and Sustainable Development

Helping Africa attract investment, both from within Africa and from abroad, and implement policies conducive to economic growth – including by:

2002-63. Supporting African initiatives aimed at improving the investment climate, including sound economic policies and efforts to improve the security of goods and transactions, consolidate property rights, modernize customs, institute needed legal and judicial reforms, and help mitigate risks for investors;

2002-64. Facilitating the financing of private investment through increased use of development finance institutions and export credit and risk-guarantee agencies and by strengthening equivalent institutions in Africa;

2002-65. Supporting African initiatives aimed at fostering efficient and sustainable regional financial markets and domestic savings and financing structures, including micro-credit schemes – while giving particular attention to seeing that credit and business support services meet the needs of poor women and men;

2002-66. Enhancing international cooperation to promote greater private investment and growth in Africa, including through public-private partnerships; and,

2002-67. Supporting the efforts of African governments to obtain sovereign credit ratings and gain access to private capital markets, including on a regional basis.

Facilitating capacity-building and the transfer of expertise for the development of infrastructure projects, with particular attention to regional initiatives.

Providing greater market access for African products – including by:

2002-68. Reaffirming our commitment to conclude negotiations no later than 1 January 2005 on further trade liberalization in the Doha round of multilateral trade negotiations taking full account of the particular circumstances, needs and requirements of developing countries, including in Africa;

2002-69. Without prejudging the outcome of the negotiations, applying our Doha commitment to comprehensive negotiations on agriculture aimed at substantial improvements in market access, reductions of all forms of export subsidies with a view to their being phased out, and substantial reductions in trade-distorting domestic support;

2002-70. Working toward the objective of duty-free and quota-free access for all products originating from the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), including African LDCs, and, to this end, each examining how to facilitate the fuller and more effective use of existing market access arrangements; and,

2002-71. Ensuring that national product standards do not unnecessarily restrict African exports and that African nations can play their full part in the relevant international standard setting systems.

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Increasing the funding and improving the quality of support for trade-related technical assistance and capacity-building in Africa – including by:

2002-72. Supporting the establishment and expansion of trade-related technical assistance programmes in Africa;

2002-73.Supporting the establishment of sub-regional market and trade information offices to support trade-related technical assistance and capacity-building in Africa;

2002-74. Assisting regional organizations in their efforts to integrate trade policy into member country development plans;

2002-75. Working to increase African participation in identifying WTO-related technical assistance needs, and providing technical assistance to African countries to implement international agreements, such as the WTO agreement;

2002-76. Assisting African producers in meeting product and health standards in export markets; and,

2002-77. Providing technical assistance to help African countries engage in international negotiations, and in standard-setting systems.

Supporting African efforts to advance regional economic integration and intra-African trade – including by:

2002-78. Helping African countries develop regional institutions in key sectors affecting regional integration, including infrastructure, water, food security and energy, and sustainable management and conservation of natural resources;

2002-79. Working towards enhanced market access, on a WTO-compatible basis, for trade with African free trade areas or customs unions;

2002-80. Supporting the efforts of African countries to eliminate tariff and non-tariff barriers within Africa in a WTO-consistent manner; and,

2002-81. Supporting efforts by African countries to work towards lowering trade barriers on imports from the rest of the world.

Improving the effectiveness of Official Development Assistance (ODA), and strengthening ODA commitments for enhanced-partnership countries – including by:

2002-82. Ensuring effective implementation of the OECD/DAC recommendations on untying aid to the Least Developed Countries;

2002-83. Implementing effectively the OECD agreement to ensure that export credit support to lowincome countries is not used for unproductive purposes;

2002-84. Supporting efforts within the DAC to reduce aid management burdens on recipient countries and lower the transactions costs of aid;

2002-85. Taking all necessary steps to implement the pledges we made at Monterrey, including ODA level increases and aid effectiveness; and,

2002-86. Reviewing annually, within the DAC and in coordination with all relevant institutions, our progress towards the achievement in Africa of the Development Goals contained in the United Nations Millennium Declaration.

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Implementing Debt Relief

2002-87. Our aim is to assist countries through the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative to reduce poverty by enabling them to exit the HIPC process with a sustainable level of debt. The HIPC Initiative will reduce, by US$19 billion (net present value terms), the debt of some 22 African countries that are following sound economic policies and good governance. Combined with traditional debt relief and additional bilateral debt forgiveness, this represents a reduction of some US$30 billion – about two-thirds of their total debt burden – that will allow an important shift of resources towards education, health and other social and productive uses.

2002-88. We are committed to seeing that the projected shortfall in the HIPC Trust Fund is fully financed.

2002-89. Moreover, we remain ready, as necessary, to provide additional debt relief – so-called "topping up" – on a case by case basis, to countries that have suffered a fundamental change in their economic circumstances due to extraordinary external shocks. In that context these countries must continue to demonstrate a commitment to poverty reduction, sound financial management, and good governance.

2002-90. We will fund our share of the shortfall in the HIPC Initiative, recognizing that this shortfall will be up to US$1 billion.

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Education and Expanding Digital Opportunities

With this in mind, we commit to:

Supporting African countries in their efforts to improve the quality of education at all levels – including by:

2002-91. Significantly increasing the support provided by our bilateral aid agencies to basic education for countries with a strong policy and financial commitment to the sector, in order to achieve the goals of universal primary education and equal access to education for girls.

2002-92. In that regard, we will work vigorously to operationalize the G8 Education Task Force report with a view to helping African countries which have shown through their actions a strong policy and financial commitment to education to achieve these goals; and to encourage other African countries to take the necessary steps so that they, too, can achieve universal primary education by 2015;

2002-93. Supporting the development and implementation by African countries of national educational plans that reflect the Dakar goals on Education for All, and encouraging support for those plans – particularly universal primary education – by the international community as an integral part of the national development strategies;

2002-94. Giving special emphasis and support to teacher training initiatives, in line with the NEPAD priorities, and the creation of accountability mechanisms and EFA assessment processes;

2002-95. Working with IFIs to increase their education-related spending, as a further supplement to bilateral and other efforts;

2002-96. Supporting the development of a client-driven "Education for All" Internet portal;

2002-97. Supporting programmes to encourage attendance and enhance academic performance, such as school feeding programmes; and,

2002-98. Supporting the development of community learning centres to develop the broader educational needs of local communities.

Supporting efforts to ensure equal access to education by women and girls – including by:

2002-99. Providing scholarships and other educational support for women and girls; and,

2002-100.Supporting African efforts to break down social, cultural and other barriers to equal access by women and girls to educational opportunities.

Working with African partners to increase assistance to Africa’s research and higher education capacity in enhanced-partnership countries – including by:

2002-101. Supporting the development of research centres and the establishment of chairs of excellence in areas integral to the NEPAD in Africa; and,

2002-102. Favouring the exchange of visiting academics and encouraging research partnerships between G8/donor and African research institutions.

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Helping Africa create digital opportunities – including by:

2002-103. Encouraging the Digital Opportunity Task Force (DOT Force) International e-Development Resources Network to focus on Africa, and supporting other DOT Force initiatives that can help to create digital opportunities, each building wherever possible on African initiatives already underway;

2002-104. Working towards the goal of universal access to ICT by working with African countries to improve national, regional and international telecommunications and ICT regulations and policies in order to create ICT-friendly environments;

2002-105. Encouraging and supporting the development of public-private partnerships to fast- track the development of ICT infrastructure; and,

2002-106. Supporting entrepreneurship and human resource development of Africans within the ICT sector.

Helping Africa make more effective use of ICT in the context of promoting sustainable economic, social and political development – including by:

2002-107. Supporting African initiatives to make best use of ICT to address education and health issues; and,

2002-108. Supporting African countries in increasing access to, and making the best use of, ICT in support of governance, including by supporting the development and implementation of national e-strategies and e-governance initiatives aimed at increased efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of government.

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Improving Health and Confronting HIV/AIDS

We commit to:

Helping Africa combat the effects of HIV/AIDS – including by:

2002-109. Supporting programmes that help mothers and children infected or affected by HIV/AIDS, including children orphaned by AIDS;

2002-110. Supporting the strengthening of training facilities for the recruiting and training of health professionals;

2002-111. Supporting the development, adoption and implementation of gender-sensitive, multisectoral HIV/AIDS programs for prevention, care, and treatment;

2002-112. Supporting high level political engagement to increase awareness and reduce the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS;

2002-113. Supporting initiatives to improve technical capacity, including disease surveillance;

2002-114. Supporting efforts to develop strong partnerships with employers in increasing HIV/AIDS awareness and in providing support to victims and their families;

2002-115. Supporting efforts that integrate approaches that address both HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis; and,

2002-116. Helping to enhance the capacity of Africa to address the challenges that HIV/AIDS poses to peace and security in Africa.

Supporting African efforts to build sustainable health systems in order to deliver effective disease interventions – including by:

2002-117. Pressing ahead with current work with the international pharmaceutical industry, affected African countries and civil society to promote the availability of an adequate supply of lifesaving medicines in an affordable and medically effective manner;

2002-118. Supporting African countries in helping to promote more effective, and cost-effective, health interventions to the most vulnerable sectors of society – including reducing maternal and infant mortality and morbidity;

2002-119. Continuing support for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and working to ensure that the Fund continues to increase the effectiveness of its operations and learns from its experience;

2002-120. Supporting African efforts to increase Africa’s access to the Global Fund and helping to enhance Africa’s capacity to participate in and benefit from the Fund;

2002-121. Providing assistance to strengthen the capacity of the public sector to monitor the quality of health services offered by both public and private providers; and,

2002-122. Supporting and encouraging the twinning of hospitals and other health organizations between G8 and African countries.

Accelerating the elimination and mitigation in Africa of polio, river blindness and other diseases or health deficiencies – including by:

2002-123. Providing, on a fair and equitable basis, sufficient resources to eliminate polio by 2005; and,

2002-124. Supporting relevant public-private partnerships for the immunization of children and the elimination of micro-nutrient deficiencies in Africa.

2002-125. Supporting health research on diseases prevalent in Africa, with a view to narrowing the health research gap, including by expanding health research networks to focus on African health issues, and by making more extensive use of researchers based in Africa.

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Increasing Agricultural Productivity

We commit to:

Making support for African agriculture a higher international priority in line with the NEPAD’s framework and priorities – including by:

2002-126. Supporting the reform and financing of international institutions and research organizations that address Africa’s agricultural development priority needs;

2002-127. Supporting efforts to strengthen agricultural research in Africa as well as research related to issues and aspects that are of particular importance to Africa; and,

2002-128. Working with African countries to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of ODA for agriculture, rural development and food security where there are coherent development strategies reflected in government budget priorities.

Working with African countries to reduce poverty through improved sustainable productivity and competitiveness – including by:

2002-129. Supporting the development and the responsible use of tried and tested new technology, including biotechnology, in a safe manner and adapted to the African context, to increase crop production while protecting the environment through decreased usage of fragile land, water and agricultural chemicals;

2002-130. Studying, sharing and facilitating the responsible use of biotechnology in addressing development needs;

2002-131. Helping to improve farmers’ access to key market information through the use of traditional and cutting edge communications technologies, while also building upon ongoing international collaboration that strengthens farmers’ entrepreneurial skills;

2002-132. Encouraging partnerships in agriculture and water research and extension to develop, adapt and adopt appropriate demand-driven technologies, including for low-income resource-poor farmers, to increase agricultural productivity and improve ability to market agricultural, fish and food products;

2002-133. Working with African countries to promote property and resource rights;

2002-134. Supporting the main-streaming of gender issues into all agricultural and related policy together with targeted measures to ensure the rights of women for equal access to technology, technical support, land rights and credits;

2002-135. Working with African countries to support the development of agricultural infrastructure including production, transportation and markets; and,

2002-136. Working with African countries to develop sound agricultural policies that are integrated into Poverty Reduction Strategies.

Working to improve food security in Africa – including by:

2002-137. Working with African countries to integrate food security in poverty reduction efforts and promote a policy and institutional environment that enables poor people to derive better livelihoods from agriculture and rural development;

2002-138. Working with appropriate international organizations in responding to the dire food shortages in Southern Africa this year;

2002-139. Working with African countries to expand efforts to improve the quality and diversity of diets with micro-nutrients and by improving fortification technologies;

2002-140. Supporting African efforts to establish food safety and quality control systems, including helping countries develop legislation, enforcement procedures and appropriate institutional frameworks; and,

2002-141. Supporting efforts to improve and better disseminate agricultural technology.

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Improving Water Resource Management

We commit to:

Supporting African efforts to improve water resource development and management – including by:

2002-142. Supporting African efforts to promote the productive and environmentally sustainable development of water resources;

2002-143. Supporting efforts to improve sanitation and access to potable water;

2002-144. Mobilizing technical assistance to facilitate and accelerate the preparation of potable water and sanitation projects in both rural and urban areas, and to generate greater efficiency in these sectors; and,

2002-145. Supporting reforms in the water sector aimed at decentralization, cost-recovery and enhanced user participation.

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Statement by G8 Leaders: The G8 Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction
(23 commitments)

2002-146. We have also decided today to launch a new G8 Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction.

2002-147. Under this initiative, we will support specific cooperation projects, initially in Russia, to address non-proliferation, disarmament, counter-terrorism and nuclear safety issues.

2002-148. Among our priority concerns are the destruction of chemical weapons, the dismantlement of decommissioned nuclear submarines, the disposition of fissile materials and the employment of former weapons scientists.

2002-149. We will commit to raise up to $20 billion to support such projects over the next ten years

2002-150. We will review over the next year the applicability of the guidelines to existing projects.

2002-151. We will review progress on this Global Partnership at our next Summit in 2003.

The G8 Global Partnership: Principles to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from gaining access to weapons or materials of mass destruction

The G8 calls on all countries to join them in commitment to the following six principles to prevent terrorists or those that harbour them from acquiring or developing nuclear, chemical, radiological and biological weapons; missiles; and related materials, equipment and technology.

2002-152. Promote the adoption, universalization, full implementation and, where necessary, strengthening of multilateral treaties and other international instruments whose aim is to prevent the proliferation or illicit acquisition of such items; strengthen the institutions designed to implement these instruments.

2002-153. Develop and maintain appropriate effective measures to account for and secure such items in production, use, storage and domestic and international transport; provide assistance to states lacking sufficient resources to account for and secure these items.

2002-154. Develop and maintain appropriate effective physical protection measures applied to facilities which house such items, including defence in depth; provide assistance to states lacking sufficient resources to protect their facilities.

2002-155. Develop and maintain effective border controls, law enforcement efforts and international cooperation to detect, deter and interdict in cases of illicit trafficking in such items, for example through installation of detection systems, training of customs and law enforcement personnel and cooperation in tracking these items; provide assistance to states lacking sufficient expertise or resources to strengthen their capacity to detect, deter and interdict in cases of illicit trafficking in these items.

2002-156. Develop, review and maintain effective national export and transshipment controls over items on multilateral export control lists, as well as items that are not identified on such lists but which may nevertheless contribute to the development, production or use of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and missiles, with particular consideration of end-user, catch-all and brokering aspects; provide assistance to states lacking the legal and regulatory infrastructure, implementation experience and/or resources to develop their export and transshipment control systems in this regard.

2002-157. Adopt and strengthen efforts to manage and dispose of stocks of fissile materials designated as no longer required for defence purposes, eliminate all chemical weapons, and minimize holdings of dangerous biological pathogens and toxins, based on the recognition that the threat of terrorist acquisition is reduced as the overall quantity of such items is reduced.

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The G8 Global Partnership: Guidelines for New or Expanded Cooperation Projects

Cooperation projects under this initiative will be decided and implemented, taking into account international obligations and domestic laws of participating partners, within appropriate bilateral and multilateral legal frameworks that should, as necessary, include the following elements:

2002-158. Mutually agreed effective monitoring, auditing and transparency measures and procedures will be required in order to ensure that cooperative activities meet agreed objectives (including irreversibility as necessary), to confirm work performance, to account for the funds expended and to provide for adequate access for donor representatives to work sites;

2002-159. The projects will be implemented in an environmentally sound manner and will maintain the highest appropriate level of safety;

2002-160. Clearly defined milestones will be developed for each project, including the option of suspending or terminating a project if the milestones are not met;

2002-161. The material, equipment, technology, services and expertise provided will be solely for peaceful purposes and, unless otherwise agreed, will be used only for the purposes of implementing the projects and will not be transferred. Adequate measures of physical protection will also be applied to prevent theft or sabotage;

2002-162. All governments will take necessary steps to ensure that the support provided will be considered free technical assistance and will be exempt from taxes, duties, levies and other charges;

2002-163. Procurement of goods and services will be conducted in accordance with open international practices to the extent possible, consistent with national security requirements;

2002-164. All governments will take necessary steps to ensure that adequate liability protections from claims related to the cooperation will be provided for donor countries and their personnel and contractors;

2002-165. Appropriate privileges and immunities will be provided for government donor representatives working on cooperation projects; and

2002-166. Measures will be put in place to ensure effective protection of sensitive information and intellectual property.

2002-167. Given the breadth and scope of the activities to be undertaken, the G8 will establish an appropriate mechanism for the annual review of progress under this initiative which may include consultations regarding priorities, identification of project gaps and potential overlap, and assessment of consistency of the cooperation projects with international security obligations and objectives.

2002-168. With respect to nuclear safety and security, the partners agreed to establish a new G8 Nuclear Safety and Security Group by the time of our next Summit.

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Cooperative G8 Action on Transport Security (19 commitments)

We have therefore agreed on a set of cooperative actions to promote greater security of land, sea and air transport while facilitating the cost-effective and efficient flow of people, cargo, and vehicles for legitimate economic and social purposes. The G8 will:

2002-169. Implement as expeditiously as possible a common global standard based on UN EDIFACT for the collection and transmission of advance passenger information (API).

2002-170. Work towards granting reciprocal bilateral access, on a voluntary basis, to departure and transit lounges, including timely implementation of a pilot project.

2002-171. Work towards agreement by October 2002 on minimum standards for issuance of travel and identity documents for adoption at ICAO, and by June 2003 on minimum standards for issuance of seafarers’ identity documents for adoption at the ILO.

2002-172. Work towards developing recommendations on minimum standards for the application of biometrics in procedures and documents by the spring of 2003, with a view to forwarding them to standards organizations.

2002-173. Improve procedures and practices for sharing data on lost or stolen passports and denied entries, with a practical exercise by September 2002.

Container Security

2002-174. Recognizing the urgency of securing global trade, work expeditiously, in cooperation with relevant international organizations, to develop and implement an improved global container security regime to identify and examine high-risk containers and ensure their in-transit integrity.

2002-175. Develop, in collaboration with interested non-G8 countries, pilot projects that model an integrated container security regime.

2002-176. Implement expeditiously, by 2005 wherever possible, common standards for electronic customs reporting, and work in the WCO to encourage the implementation of the same common standards by non-G8 countries.

2002-177. Begin work expeditiously within the G8 and the WCO to require advance electronic information pertaining to containers, including their location and transit, as early as possible in the trade chain.

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Aviation Security

2002-178. Accelerate implementation of standards for reinforced flight deck doors for all G8 passenger aircraft, by April 2003 wherever possible.

2002-179. Support in ICAO the rapid implementation of mandatory aviation security audits of all ICAO contracting states.

2002-180. Enhance cooperation, in a spirit of capacity-building assistance, on aviation security with other countries. The G8 will also share their information and assessments about security vulnerabilities.

2002-181. Encourage non-G8 countries to make, as we have done, proportionate contributions to the ICAO AVSEC mechanism, and encourage MDBs to consider requests to assist developing countries in this area.

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Maritime Security

2002-182. Support, in the IMO, amendment of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) to accelerate the date of the installation of automatic identification systems (AIS) on certain ships to December 2004.*

2002-183. Support, in the IMO, amendment of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) to require mandatory ship security plans and ship security officers on board ships by July 2004.

2002-184. Support, in the IMO, amendment of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) to require mandatory port facility security plans and port facility security assessments for relevant ports serving ships engaged on international voyages by July 2004.*

* The Government of the Russian Federation supports the proposal concerning installation of AIS on certain ships by December 2004, as well as the proposal concerning availability of port facility security plans and port facility security assessments for relevant ports serving ships engaged on international voyages by July 2004. However, on grounds of technical feasibility of these proposals, the Russian Federation reserves for itself the right to extend the timeframe of their implementation by the year 2006.

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Land Transportation

2002-185. Develop, in the UN and other relevant international organizations, an effective and proportionate security regime for the overland transportation and distribution of hazardous cargoes which present potentially significant security risks, with initial consultations this year.

Implementation

2002-186. In order to ensure timely implementation of this initiative, we will review progress every six months, providing direction as required to G8 experts.

2002-187. G8 experts will pursue these priorities and will promote policy coherence and coordination in all relevant international organizations (ICAO, IMO, WCO, ILO), in partnership with industry.

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