Data Sets

Back to Introduction to G7/G8 Summit Commitments, 1975–2006

Appendix B
List of Individual Commitments
Cycle 3, 1989–1995

1989 Paris, France
1990 Houston, U.S.
1991 London, UK

1992 Munich, Germany
1993 Tokyo, Japan

1994 Naples, Italy

1995 Halifax, Canada

1989 Paris, France (61 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (38 commitments)

International Economic Situation

1989-1. In countries with fiscal and current account deficits, including the United States of America, Canada and Italy, further reductions in budget deficits are needed. Action will be taken to bring them down.

International Monetary Developments and Coordination

1989-2. Under the Plaza and Louvre agreements, our countries agreed to pursue, in a mutually reinforcing way, policies of surveillance and coordination aimed at improving their economic fundamentals and at fostering stability of exchange rates consistent with those economic fundamentals.

1989-3. It is important to continue, and where appropriate, to develop this cooperative and flexible approach to improve the functioning and the stability of the International Monetary System in a manner consistent with economic fundamentals. We therefore ask the Finance Ministers to continue to keep under review possible steps that could be taken to improve the coordination process, exchange market cooperation, and the functioning of the International Monetary System.

Improving Economic Efficiency

1989-4. We will continue to promote measures in order to remove inefficiencies in our economies. These inefficiencies affect many aspects of economic activity, reduce potential growth rates and the prospects for job creation, diminish the effectiveness of macroeconomic policies and impede the external adjustment process.

1989-5. In this context, tax reforms, modernization of financial markets, strengthening of competition policies and reducing rigidities in all sectors including energy, industry and agriculture are necessary.

1989-6. So are the improvement of education and vocational training, transportation and distribution systems and further policies aimed at giving more flexibility and mobility to the labor market and reducing unemployment.

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Trade Issues

1989-7. World trade developed rapidly last year. Yet protectionism remains a real threat. We strongly reaffirm our determination to fight it in all its forms.

1989-8. We shall fulfill the Punta del Este standstill and rollback commitments which, inter alia, require the avoidance of any trade restrictive or distorting measure inconsistent with the provisions of the General Agreement and its instruments.

1989-9. We agree to make effective use of the improved GATT dispute settlement mechanism and to make progress in negotiations for further improvements.

1989-10. We will avoid any discriminatory or autonomous actions, which undermine the principles of the GATT and the integrity of the multilateral trading system.

1989-11. We also are pledged to oppose the tendency towards unilateralism, bilateralism, sectoralism and managed trade which threatens to undermine the multilateral system and the Uruguay Round negotiations.

1989-12. We express our full commitment to making further substantive progress in the Uruguay Round in order to complete it by the end of 1990.

General Problems of Development

1989-13. We shall help developing countries by opening the world trading system and by supporting their structural adjustment.

1989-14. We shall encourage, too, economic diversification in commodity dependent countries and the creation of a favorable environment for transfers of technology and capital flows.

Situation in the Poorest Countries

1989-15. We welcome the increasing grant element in the development assistance as well as the steps taken to convert loans into grants and we urge further steps to this end. Flexibility in development aid as much as in debt rescheduling is required.

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Strengthened Debt Strategy for the Heavily Indebted Countries

1989-16. To address these challenges, we are strongly committed to the strengthened debt strategy. Our governments are prepared to consider as appropriate tax, regulatory and accounting practices with a view to eliminating unnecessary obstacles to debt and debt service reductions.

Environment

1989-17. Decisive action is urgently needed to understand and protect the earth’s ecological balance. We will work together to achieve the common goals of preserving a healthy and balanced global environment in order to meet shared economic and social objectives and to carry out obligations to future generations.

1989-18. In order to achieve sustainable development, we shall ensure the compatibility of economic growth and development with the protection of the environment.

1989-19. Environmental protection and related investment should contribute to economic growth. In this respect, intensified efforts for technological breakthrough are important to reconcile economic growth and environmental policies.

1989-20. Specific attention must also be given to those ozone-depleting substances not covered by the Montreal protocol. We shall promote the development and use of suitable substitute substances and technologies.

1989-21. We strongly advocate common efforts to limits emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, which threaten to induce climate change, endangering the environment and ultimately the economy.

1989-22. We need to strengthen the worldwide network of observatories for greenhouse gases and support the World Meteorological Organization initiative to establish a global climatological reference network to detect climate changes.

1989-23. We are committed to maintaining the highest safety standards for nuclear power plants and to strengthening international cooperation in safe operation of power plants and waste management, and we recognize that nuclear power also plays an important role in limiting output of greenhouse gases.

1989-24. Preserving the tropical forests is an urgent need for the world as a whole. To this end, we give strong support to rapid implementation of the Tropical Forest Action Plan which was adopted in 1986 in the framework of the Food and Agriculture Organization [of the United Nations].

1989-25. We express our readiness to assist the efforts of nations with tropical forests through financial and technical cooperation, and in international organizations.

1989-26. We ask all countries to adhere to and implement fully the international conventions for the prevention of oil pollution of the oceans.

1989-27. We are committed to ensuring full implementation of existing rules for the environment. In this respect, we note with interest the initiative of the Italian government to host in 1990 a forum on international law for the environment with scholars, scientific experts and officials, to consider the need for a digest of existing rules and to give in-depth consideration to the legal aspects of environment at the international level.

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Drug Issues

The drug problem has reached devastating proportions. We stress the urgent need for decisive action, both on a national and an international basis. We urge all countries, especially those where drug production, trading and consumption are large, to join our efforts to counter drug production, to reduce demand, and to carry forward the fight against drug trafficking itself and the laundering of its proceeds. Accordingly, we resolve to take the following measures within relevant fora:

1989-28. Give greater emphasis on bilateral and United Nations programs for the conversion of illicit cultivation in the producer countries.

1989-29. The United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control (UNFDAC), and other United Nations and multilateral organizations should be supported, strengthened and made more effective.

1989-30. These efforts could include particular support for the implementation of effective programs to stop drug cultivation and trading as well as developmental and technical assistance.

1989-31. Support the efforts of producing countries who ask for assistance to counter illegal production or trafficking.

1989-32. Strengthen the role of the United Nations in the war against drugs through an increase in its resources and through reinforced effectiveness of its operation.

1989-33. Intensify the exchange of information on the prevention of addiction, and rehabilitation of drug addicts.

1989-34. Support the international conference planned for 1990 on cocaine and drug demand reduction.

1989-35. Strengthen the efficiency of the cooperative and mutual assistance on these issues, the first steps being a prompt adhesion to, ratification and implementation of the Vienna Convention on illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

1989-36. Conclude further bilateral or multilateral agreements and support initiatives and cooperation, where appropriate, which include measures to facilitate the identification, tracing, freezing, seizure and forfeiture of drug crime proceeds.

1989-37. Convene a financial action task force from Summit participants and other countries interested in these problems. Its mandate is to assess the results of cooperation already undertaken in order to prevent the utilization of the banking system and financial institutions for the purpose of money laundering, and to consider additional preventive efforts in this field, including the adaptation of the legal and regulatory systems so as to enhance multilateral judicial assistance.

1989-38. The first meeting of this task force will be called by France and its report will be completed by April 1990.

International Cooperation against AIDS

- no commitments reached

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 Declaration on China (2 commitments)

1989-39. This repression has led each of us to take appropriate measures to express our deep sense of condemnation to suspend bilateral Ministerial and high-level contacts, and also to suspend arms-trade with China, where it exists.

1989-40. Furthermore, each of us has agreed that, in view of current economic uncertainties, the examination of new loans by the World Bank be postponed.

 

Declaration on East-West Relations (9 commitments)

1989-41. In order to hasten the advent of a world in which the weight of arms and military strength is reduced, we recommit ourselves to the urgent pursuit of a global ban on chemical weapons, a conventional forces balance in Europe at the lowest possible level consistent with our security requirements, and a substantial reduction in Soviet and American strategic nuclear arms.

1989-42. We welcome the process of reform underway in Poland and Hungary. We recognize that the political changes taking place in these countries will be difficult to sustain without economic progress. Each of us is prepared to support this process and to consider, as appropriate and in a coordinated fashion, economic assistance aimed at transforming and opening their economies in a durable manner.

1989-43. We believe that each of us should direct our assistance to these countries so as to sustain the momentum of reform through inward investment, joint ventures, transfer of managerial skills, professional training and other ventures which would help develop a more competitive economy.

1989-44. Each of us is developing concrete initiatives designed to encourage economic reforms, to promote more competitive economies and to provide new opportunities for trade.

1989-45. We agreed to work along with other interested countries and multilateral institutions to concert support for the process of reform underway in Hungary and Poland, in order to make our measures of support more effective and mutually reinforcing.

1989-46. We will encourage further creative efforts by interested governments and the public and private sectors in support of the reform process.

1989-47. Concerning concerted support for reform in Poland and Hungary, we call for a meeting with all interested countries which will take place in the next few weeks.

1989-48. We underline, for Poland, the urgent need for food in present circumstances.

1989-49. We are ready to support in the Paris Club the rescheduling of Polish debt expeditiously and in a flexible and forthcoming manner.

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Declaration on Human Rights (3 commitments)

1989-50. We reaffirm our commitment to freedom, democratic principles and human rights.

1989-51. We reaffirm our belief in the rule of law which respects and protects without fear or favor the rights and liberties of every citizen, and provides the setting in which the human spirit can develop in freedom and diversity.

1989-52. Human rights are a matter of legitimate international concern. We commit ourselves again to encouraging and promoting universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

 

Declaration on Terrorism (9 commitments)

1989-53. We remain resolutely opposed to terrorism in all its forms. We confirm the commitment each of us has undertaken to the principle of making no concessions to terrorists or their sponsors and to cooperating, bilaterally and in all relevant international fora, in combatting terrorism.

1989-54. We reiterate our commitment to the policies agreed at previous summits; in particular we condemn state-sponsored terrorism.

1989-55. We are determined not to let terrorists remain unpunished, and to have them brought to justice within the framework of international law and in conformity with the rule of law.

1989-56. We reaffirm in particular our absolute condemnation of the taking of hostages.

1989-57. Deeply concerned for the safety of all travelers and outraged by the murderous attacks perpetrated against international civil aviation and the frequent threat to air transport safety from terrorist groups, we reaffirm our commitment to the fight against all forms of terrorism affecting civil aviation.

1989-58. We reiterate our determination to contribute to reinforcing internationally agreed measures for protection against aircraft hijackings and sabotage.

1989-59. We particularly condemn the recent attack on an aircraft over Scotland, which killed 270 people. We have agreed to give priority to preventing such attacks by further strengthening security measures.

1989-60. We have also agreed on the need for improved methods of detecting explosives.

1989-61. We endorse efforts currently underway in ICAO to develop, as a matter of high priority, an appropriate international regime for the marking of plastic and sheet explosives for detection.

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Statement on the Arab-Israeli Conflict (0 commitments)

- no commitments reached

 

Statement on Southern Africa (0 commitments)

- no commitments reached

 

Statement on Central America (0 commitments)

- no commitments reached

 

Statement on Panama (0 commitments)

- no commitments reached

 

Statement on Cambodia (0 commitments)

- no commitments reached

 

Statement on Lebanon (0 commitments)

- no commitments reached

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1990 Houston, U.S. (78 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (56 commitments)

International Trading System

1990-1. The successful outcome of the Uruguay Round has the highest priority on the international economic agenda. Consequently, we stress our determination to take the difficult political decisions necessary to achieve far-reaching, substantial results in all areas of the Uruguay Round by the end of this year.

1990-2. We instruct our negotiators to make progress and in particular to agree on the complete profile of the final package by the July meeting of the Trade Negotiations Committee.

1990-3. The outcome of the GATT negotiations on agriculture should lead to a better balance between supply and demand and ensure that agricultural policies do not impede the effective functioning of international markets. We therefore reaffirm our commitment to the long-term objective of the reform, i.e., to allow market signals to influence agriculture production and to establish a fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system.

1990-4. The achievement of this objective requires each of us to make substantial, progressive reductions in support and protection of agriculture–covering internal regimes, market access, and export subsidies–and develop rules governing sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures.

1990-5. Agreement on such a framework by the time of the July meeting of the Trade Negotiations Committee is critical to the successful completion of the Uruguay Round as a whole. Accordingly, we commend to our negotiators the text submitted by the Chairman of the Agricultural Negotiating Group as a means to intensify the negotiations.

1990-6. We intend to maintain a high level of personal involvement and to exercise the political leadership necessary to ensure the successful outcome of these negotiations.

As regards the new areas, the aim is to develop new rules and procedures within the GATT framework, including:

1990-7. a framework of contractually enforceable rules to liberalize services trade, with no sector excluded a priori;

1990-8. an agreement to reduce trade-distorting effects of trade-related investment measures; and

1990-9. an agreement to provide for standards and effective enforcement of all intellectual property rights.

1990-10. The concept of an international trade organization should be addressed at the conclusion of the Uruguay Round. We also need to improve the dispute settlement process in order to implement the results of the negotiations effectively. This should lead to a commitment to operate only under the multilateral rules.

Soviet Union

1990-11. We have all begun, individually and collectively, to assist these reform efforts. We all believe that technical assistance should be provided now to help the Soviet Union move to a market-oriented economy and to mobilize its own resources. Some countries are already in a position to extend large-scale financial credits.

1990-12. We have taken note of the decision of the European Council in Dublin on June 26. We have agreed to ask the IMF, the World Bank, the OECD and the designated president of the EBRD to undertake, in close consultation with the Commission of the European Communities, a detailed study of the Soviet economy, to make recommendations for its reform and to establish the criteria under which Western economic assistance could effectively support these reforms.

1990-13. This work should be completed by year’s end and be convened by the IMF.

Developing Nations

1990-14. We reiterate that our commitment to the developing world will not be weakened by the support for reforming countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The poorest of the developing nations must remain the focus of special attention.

1990-15. The International Development Association replenishment of SDR 11.6 billion, agreed to last December, will provide needed resources for these countries, and marks the incorporation of environmental concerns into development lending.

1990-16. It is our intention to take a constructive part in the Paris Conference on the least developed countries in September.

1990-17. The advanced industrial economies can make a number of major contributions to the long-run development of the developing countries. By sustaining economic growth and price stability, we can offer stable, growing markets and sources of capital for the developing world.

1990-18. By providing financial and technical support to developing countries undertaking genuine political and economic reform, we can reinforce their ongoing liberalization.

1990-19. The industrialized nations should continue to make efforts to enhance their development aid and other forms of assistance to the developing countries, including reinforcing the effectiveness of the aid.

1990-20. Supporting the efforts of developing countries to maintain this balance is a priority.

Third World Debt

1990-21. Creditor nations will continue to play an important role in this process through ongoing contributions to the international financial institutions, rescheduling of official debt in the Paris Club, and new finance.

1990-22. We encourage the Paris Club to continue reviewing additional options to address debt burdens.

1990-23. In the case of the lower middle-income countries implementing strong reform programs, we encourage the Paris Club to lengthen the repayment period, taking account of the special situations of these countries.

1990-24. Creditor governments have also provided special support for the poorest countries through the implementation of Toronto terms in Paris Club re-schedulings.

1990-25. We note and will study with interest the Craxi Report on debt commissioned by the UN Secretary-General.

Environment

1990-26. Climate change is of key importance. We are committed to undertake common efforts to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. We strongly support the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and look forward to the release of its full report in August.

1990-27. We reiterate our support for the negotiation of a framework convention on climate change, under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

1990-28. The convention should be completed by 1992.

1990-29. Work on appropriate implementing protocols should be undertaken as expeditiously as possible and should consider all sources and sinks.

1990-30. We welcome the amendment of the Montreal Protocol to phase out the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by the year 2000 and to extend coverage of the Protocol to other ozone-depleting substances.

1990-31. We acknowledge that enhanced levels of cooperation will be necessary with regard to the science and impacts of climate change and economic implications of possible response strategies.

1990-32. We recognize the importance of working together to develop new technologies and methods over the coming decades to complement energy conservation and other measures to reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse emissions.

1990-33. We support accelerated scientific and economic research and analysis on the dynamics and potential impact of climate change, and on potential responses of developed and developing countries.

1990-34. We are determined to take action to increase forests, while protecting existing ones and recognizing the sovereign rights of all countries to make use of their natural resources.

1990-35. The destruction of tropical forests has reached alarming proportions. We welcome the commitment of the new Government of Brazil to help arrest this destruction and to provide sustainable forest management.

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1990-36. We are ready to cooperate with the Government of Brazil on a comprehensive pilot program to counteract the threat to tropical rain forests in that country.

1990-37. Experience gained in this pilot program should immediately be shared with other countries faced with tropical forest destruction. The Tropical Forestry Action Plan must be reformed and strengthened, placing more emphasis on forest conservation and protection of biological diversity.

1990-38. The International Tropical Timber Organization action plan must be enhanced to emphasize sustainable forest management and improve market operations.

1990-39. We are ready to begin negotiations, in the appropriate fora, as expeditiously as possible on a global forest convention or agreement, which is needed to curb deforestation, protect biodiversity, stimulate positive forestry actions, and address threats to the world’s forests.

1990-40. The convention or agreement should be completed as soon as possible, but no later than 1992.

1990-41. The work of the IPCC and others should be taken into account.

The destruction of ecologically sensitive areas around the world continues at an alarming pace. Loss of temperate and tropical forests, developmental pressures on estuaries, wetlands and coral reefs, and destruction of biological diversity are symptomatic. To reverse this trend, we will:

1990-42. expand cooperation to combat desertification;

1990-43. expand projects to conserve biological diversity;

1990-44. protect the Antarctic; and

1990-45. assist developing countries in their environmental efforts.

1990-46. We will work within UNEP and other fora to achieve these objectives, and

will participate actively in UNEP’s work to protect biodiversity.

1990-47. Efforts to protect the environment do not stop at the water’s edge. Serious problems are caused by marine pollution, both in the oceans and in coastal areas. A comprehensive strategy should be developed to address land-based sources of pollution; we are committed to helping in this regard.

1990-48. We will continue our efforts to avoid oil spills, urge the early entry into force of the existing International Maritime Organization (IMO) Convention, and welcome the work of that organization in developing an international oil spills convention.

1990-49. We are concerned about the impact of environmental degradation and unregulated fishing practices on living marine resources. We support cooperation in the conservation of living marine resources and recognize the importance of regional fisheries organizations in this respect.

1990-50. We recognize that debt-for-nature swaps can play a useful role in protecting the environment. We will examine how the World Bank can provide a coordinating role for measures to promote environmental protection.

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Narcotics

1990-51. We support the declaration adopted at the ministerial meeting on drugs convened by the United Kingdom that drug demand reduction should be accorded the same importance in policy and action as the reduction of illicit supply. Developed countries should adopt stronger prevention efforts and assist demand reduction initiatives in other countries.

1990-52. We endorse the report of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and commit our countries to a full implementation of all its recommendations without delay.

1990-53. As agreed at the May meeting of Task Force Finance Ministers, the FATF should be reconvened for a second year, chaired by France, to assess and facilitate the implementation of these recommendations, and to complement them where appropriate.

1990-54. Effective procedures should be adopted to ensure that precursor and essential chemicals are not diverted to manufacture illicit drugs. A task force similar to the FATF should be created for this purpose, composed of Summit participants and other countries that trade in these chemicals, with the involvement of representatives of the chemical industry.

1990-55. The task force should address the problems which concern cocaine, heroin and synthetic drugs and report within a year.

1990-56. We should support an informal narcotics consultative arrangement with developed countries active in international narcotics control. Such a group could strengthen efforts to reduce supply and demand, and improve international cooperation.

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Political Declaration: Securing Democracy (10 commitments)

1990-57. We welcome the intention of the Soviet Union to move toward a democratic political system, as well as Soviet attempts to reform their economy along market principles. We commit ourselves to working with the Soviet Union to assist its efforts to create an open society, a pluralistic democracy, and a market-oriented economy.

1990-58. We acknowledge some of the recent developments in China, but believe that the prospects for closer cooperation will be enhanced by renewed political and economic reform, particularly in the field of human rights. We agree to maintain the measures put into place at last year’s Summit, as modified over the course of this year.

1990-59. We will keep them under review for future adjustments to respond to further positive developments in China. For example, in addition to existing lending to meet basic human needs, we will explore whether there are other World Bank loans that would contribute to reform of the Chinese economy, especially loans that would address environmental concerns.

1990-60. We also welcome the positive developments that have taken place in South Africa, especially the launching of talks between the government and representatives of the black majority. We will continue to support this process and we call on all parties to refrain from vioaflence or its advocacy.

1990-61. We reaffirm our commitment to the fundamental principles we seek to realize in our own societies, and we underscore that political and economic freedoms are closely linked and mutually reinforcing.

1990-62. Each of us stands ready to help in practical ways those countries that choose freedom, through the provision of constitutional, legal, and economic know-how and through economic assistance, as appropriate.

In drawing from our different constitutional and historical experiences, we stand ready, individually and jointly in relevant fora, to:

1990-63. assist in the drafting of laws, including bills of rights and civil, criminal, and economic framework laws;

1990-64. advise in the fostering of independent media;

1990-65. establish training programs in government, management, and technical fields;

1990-66. develop and expand people-to-people contacts and exchange programs to help diffuse understanding and knowledge.

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Statement on Transnational Issues (11 commitments)

Terrorism

1990-67. We, the Heads of State or Government, reaffirm our condemnation of terrorism in all its forms, our commitment to make no concessions to terrorists or their sponsors, and our resolve to continue to cooperate in efforts to combat terrorism.

1990-68. We demand that those governments which provide support to terrorists end such support immediately. We are determined not to allow terrorists to remain unpunished, but to see them brought to justice in accordance with international law and national legislation.

1990-69. We note with deep concern the continuing threat presented to civil aviation by terrorist groups, as demonstrated by such outrages as the sabotage of civil aircraft over Lockerbie, Scotland on December 21, 1988, above Niger on September 19, 1989, and over Colombia on November 27, 1989. We reiterate our determination to fight terrorist assaults against civil aviation.

1990-70. Accordingly, we will continue our cooperation to negotiate a convention requiring the introduction of additives into plastic explosives to aid in their detection.

1990-71. We pledge to work to strengthen international civil aviation security standards.

1990-72. Consistent with this objective, we note the importance of making available training and technical assistance to other nations.

1990-73. We support initiatives undertaken through the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) regarding this issue. We will work together with ICAO to expand such assistance.

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Non-Proliferation

1990-74. With regard to chemical and biological proliferation, we commit ourselves to pursue efforts to prevent the diversion of chemical precursors at a national level, as well as in the relevant Western fora.

1990-75. We similarly commit ourselves to be vigilant about the danger of potential diversions in the field of biological technologies.

1990-76. We endorse a complete ban on chemical weapons, through an effective and verifiable treaty, as the only long-term guarantee against the proliferation of chemical weapons.

1990-77. We reiterate our determination, first expressed at the 1989 Paris Conference on Chemical Weapons, to redouble the effort at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva to resolve the remaining issues and to conclude the Convention at the earliest date.

 

Chairman’s Statement [by James A. Baker III] (1 commitment)

1990-78. We acknowledge some recent actions taken by the Chinese government, but for now the measures put in place at last year’s Summit remain. We will explore, however, whether there are World Bank loans that would contribute to reform of the Chinese economy, especially to meet environmental concerns.

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1991 London, UK (53 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (38 commitments)

Economic Policy

We will also, with the help of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and other institutions, pursue reforms to improve economic efficiency and thus the potential for growth. These include:

1991-1. greater competition in our economies, including regulatory reform. This can enhance consumer choice, reduce prices and ease burdens on business;

1991-2. greater transparency, elimination or enhanced discipline in subsidies that have distorting effects, since such subsidies lead to inefficient allocation of resources and inflate public expenditure;

1991-3. improved education and training, to enhance the skills and improve the opportunities of those both in and out of employment, as well as policies contributing to greater flexibility in the employment system;

1991-4. a more efficient public sector, for example through higher standards of management and including possibilities for privatisation and contracting out;

1991-5. the wide and rapid diffusion of advances in science and technology;

1991-6. essential investment, both private and public, in infrastructure.

International Trade

1991-7. We therefore commit ourselves to an ambitious, global and balanced package of results from the Round, with the widest possible participation by both developed and developing countries. The aim of all contracting parties should be to complete the Round before the end of 1991.

1991-8. We shall each remain personally involved in this process, ready to intervene with one another if differences can only be resolved at the highest level.

To achieve our objectives, sustained progress will be needed in the negotiations at Geneva in all areas over the rest of this year. The principal requirement is to move forward urgently in the following areas taken together:

1991-9. market access, where it is necessary, in particular, to cut tariff peaks for some products while moving to zero tariffs for others, as part of a substantial reduction of tariffs and parallel action against non-tariff barriers;

1991-10. agriculture, where a framework must be decided upon to provide for specific binding commitments in domestic support, market access and export competition, so that substantial progressive reductions of support and protection may be agreed in each area, taking into account non-trade concerns;

1991-11. services, where accord on a general agreement on trade in services should be reinforced by substantial and binding initial commitments to reduce or remove existing restrictions on services trade and not to impose new ones;

1991-12. intellectual property, where clear and enforceable rules and obligations to protect all property rights are necessary to encourage investment and the spread of technology.

1991-13. Progress on these issues will encourage final agreement in areas already close to conclusion, such as textiles, tropical products, safeguards and dispute settlement.

1991-14. Agreement to an improved dispute settlement mechanism should lead to a commitment to operate only under the multilateral rules.

1991-15. We will seek to ensure that regional integration is compatible with the multilateral trading system.

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Energy

1991-16. We will work to secure stable worldwide energy supplies, to remove barriers to energy trade and investment, to encourage high environmental and safety standards and to promote international cooperation on research and development in all these areas.

1991-17. We will also seek to improve energy efficiency and to price energy from all sources so as to reflect costs fully, including environmental costs.

1991-18. We all intend to take a full part in the initiative of the European Community for the establishment of a European Energy Charter on the basis of equal rights and obligations of signatory countries. The aim is to promote free and undistorted energy trade, to enhance security of supply, to protect the environment and to assist economic reform in Central and East European countries and the Soviet Union, especially by creating an open, non-discriminatory regime for commercial energy investment.

Central and Eastern Europe

1991-19. Recognising that successful reform depends principally on the continuing efforts of the countries concerned, we renew our own firm commitment to support their reform efforts, to forge closer ties with them and to encourage their integration into the international economic system. Regional initiatives reinforce our ability to co-operate.

1991-20. We will support the work of the OECD to identify restrictions to East/West trade and to facilitate their removal.

1991-21. The Group of Twenty-four (G24) process, inaugurated by the Arch Summit and chaired by the European Commission, has mobilised $31 billion in bilateral support for these countries, including balance of payments finance to underpin IMF-supported programmes. Such programmes are in place for Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. We welcome the contributions already made for Bulgaria and Romania. We are intensifying the G24 coordination process and we reaffirm our shared willingness to play our fair part in the global assistance effort.

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Soviet Union

22. We support the moves towards political and economic transformation in the Soviet Union and are ready to assist the integration of the Soviet Union into the world economy.

Developing Countries and Debt

1991-23. We will provide humanitarian assistance to those parts of Africa facing severe famine and encourage the reform of United Nations structures in order to make this assistance more effective. We will also work to help the countries concerned remove the underlying causes of famine and other emergencies, whether these are natural or provoked by civil strife.

Environment

We aim to achieve the following by the time of UNCED:

1991-24. an effective framework convention on climate change, containing appropriate commitments and addressing all sources and sinks for greenhouse gases. We will seek to expedite work on implementing protocols to reinforce the convention.

1991-25. All participants should be committed to design and implement concrete strategies to limit net emissions of greenhouse gases, with measures to facilitate adaptation. Significant actions by industrial countries will encourage the participation of developing and East European countries, which is essential to the negotiations;

1991-26. Agreement on principles for the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forest, leading to a framework convention. This should be in a form both acceptable to the developing countries where tropical forests grow and consistent with the objective of a global forest convention or agreement which we set at Houston.

We will seek to promote, in the context of UNCED:

1991-27. mobilisation of financial resources to help developing countries tackle environmental problems.

1991-28. We support the use of existing mechanisms for this purpose, in particular the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The GEF could become the comprehensive funding mechanism to help developing countries meet their obligations under the new environmental conventions;

1991-29. encouragement of an improved flow of beneficial technology to developing countries, making use of commercial mechanisms;

1991-30. a comprehensive approach to the oceans, including regional seas. The environmental and economic importance of oceans and seas means that they must be protected and sustainably managed;

1991-31. further development of international law of the environment, drawing inter alia on the results of the Siena Forum;

1991-32. the reinforcement of international institutions concerned with the environment, including the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), for the decade ahead.

1991-33. We support the negotiation, under the auspices of UNEP, of an acceptable framework convention on biodiversity, if possible to be concluded next year. It should concentrate on protecting ecosystems, particularly in species-rich areas, without impeding positive developments in biotechnology.

1991-34. We remain concerned about the destruction of tropical forests. We welcome the progress made in developing the pilot programme for the conservation of the Brazilian tropical forest, which has been prepared by the Government of Brazil in consultation with the World Bank and the European Commission, in response to the offer of co-operation extended following the Houston Summit.

1991-35. We call for further urgent work under the auspices of the World Bank, in co-operation with the European Commission, in the framework of appropriate policies and with careful attention to economic, technical and social issues.

1991-36. We will financially support the implementation of the preliminary stage of the pilot programme utilising all potential sources, including the private sector, non-governmental organisations, the multilateral development banks, and the Global Environmental Facility.

1991-37. When details of the programme have been resolved, we will consider supplementing these resources with bilateral assistance, so that progress can be made on the ground.

We call for greater efforts in co-operation in environmental science and technology, in particular:

1991-38. scientific research into the global climate, including satellite monitoring and ocean observation. All countries, including developing countries, should be involved in this research effort.

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Prime Minister’s Statement on the Economic Declaration [John Major] (0 commitments)

- reiteration of communiqué’s commitments

 

Political Declaration: Strengthening the International Order (0 Commitments)

Central and Eastern Europe

1991-39. We have a strong interest in the success of market reforms and democracy in Central and Eastern Europe and we commit ourselves to full support for these reforms. We also take note of the progress of Albania towards joining the democratic community of nations.

Yugoslavia

1991-40. It is for the peoples of Yugoslavia themselves to decide upon their future. We will do whatever we can, with others in the international community, to encourage and support the process of dialogue and negotiation in accordance with the principles enshrined in the Helsinki Final Act and the Paris Charter for a new Europe, in particular respect for human rights, including rights of minorities and the right of peoples to self-determination in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations and with the relevant norms of international law, including those relating to territorial integrity of states. The normalisation of the present situation will allow us to contribute to the indispensable economic recovery of the country.

South Africa

1991-41. In addition to its own domestic efforts, South Africa also needs the help of the international community, especially in those areas where the majority have long suffered deprivation: education, health, housing and social welfare. We will direct our aid for these purposes.

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Declaration on Conventional Arms Transfers and NBC [Nuclear, Biological and Chemical] Non-Proliferation (12 commitments)

Conventional Arms Transfers

1991-42. The principle of transparency should be extended to international transfers of conventional weapons and associated military technology. As a step in this direction, we support the proposal for a universal register of arms transfers under the auspices of the United Nations, and will work for its early adoption.

1991-43. The principle of consultation should now be strengthened through the rapid implementation of recent initiatives for discussions among leading arms exporters with the aim of agreeing a common approach to the guidelines which are applied in the transfer of conventional weapons. We welcome the recent opening of discussions on this subject. These include the encouraging talks in Paris among the Permanent Members of the United Security Council on 8-9 July; as well as ongoing discussions within the framework of the European Community and its Member States. Each of us will continue to play a constructive part in this important process, in these and other appropriate fora.

1991-44. The principle of action requires all of us to take steps to prevent the building up of disproportionate arsenals. To that end, all countries should refrain from arms transfers which would be destabilising or would exacerbate existing tensions. Special restraint should be exercised in the transfer of advanced technology weapons and in sales to countries and areas of particular concern. A special effort should be made to define sensitive items and production capacity for advanced weapons, to the transfer of which similar restraints could be applied. All states should take steps to ensure that these criteria are strictly enforced. We intend to give these issues our continuing close attention.

Non-Proliferation

1991-45. Iraq must fully abide by Security Council Resolution 687, which sets out requirements for the destruction, removal or rendering harmless under international supervision of its nuclear, biological and chemical warfare and missile capabilities; as well as for verification and long-term monitoring to ensure that Iraq’s capability for such weapon systems is not developed in the future. Consistent with the relevant UN resolutions, we will provide every assistance to the United Nations Special Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) so that they can fully carry out their tasks.

In the nuclear field, we:

1991-46. reaffirm our will to work to establish the widest possible consensus in favour of an equitable and stable nonproliferation regime based on a balance between nuclear nonproliferation and the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy;

1991-47. reaffirm the importance of the Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty (NPT) and call on all other nonsignatory states to subscribe to this agreement;

1991-48. call on all other nonnuclear weapon states to submit all their nuclear activities to IAEA safeguards, which are the cornerstone of the international nonproliferation regime;

Each of us will also work to achieve:

1991-49. our common purpose of maintaining and reinforcing the NPT regime beyond 1995;

1991-50. a strengthened and improved IAEA safeguards system;

1991-51. new measures in the Nuclear Suppliers Group to ensure adequate export controls on dual use items.

1991-52. We welcome recent announcements by the United States which we believe will contribute to the swift conclusion of such a convention. We hope that the negotiation will be successfully concluded as soon as possible.

1991-53. We reaffirm our intention to become original parties to the convention.

Chairman’s Statement [British Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd] (0 commitments)

- no commitments reached

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1992 Munich, Germany (41 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (31 commitments)

World Economy

1992-1. We pledge to adopt policies aimed at creating jobs and growth. We will seek to take the appropriate steps, recognising our individual circumstances, to establish sound macroeconomic policies to spur stronger sustainable growth. With this in mind we have agreed on the following guidelines:

1992-2. To continue to pursue sound monetary and financial policies to support the upturn without rekindling inflation;

1992-3. To create the scope for lower interest rates through the reduction of excessive public deficits and the promotion of savings;

1992-4. The coordination of economic and financial policies is a central element in our common strategy for sustained, non inflationary growth. We request our Finance Ministers to strengthen their cooperation on the basis of our agreed guidelines and to intensify their work to reduce obstacles to growth and therefore foster employment. We ask them to report to our meeting in Japan in 1993.

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)

To carry forward the momentum of the Rio Conference, we urge other countries to join us:

1992-5. in seeking to ratify the Climate Change Convention by the end of 1993;

1992-6. in drawing up and publishing national action plans, as foreseen at UNCED, by the end of 1993;

1992-7. in working to protect species and the habitats on which they depend;

1992-8. in giving additional financial and technical support to developing countries for sustainable development through official development assistance (ODA), in particular by replenishment of IDA, and for actions of global benefit through the Global Environment Facility (GEF) with a view to its being established as a permanent funding mechanism;

1992-9. in establishing at the 1992 UN General Assembly the Sustainable Development Commission which will have a vital role to play in monitoring the implementation of Agenda 21;

1992-10. in establishing an international review process for the forest principles, in an early dialogue, on the basis of the implementation of these principles, on possible appropriate internationally agreed arrangements, and in increased international assistance;

1992-11. in further improving monitoring of the global environment, including through better utilisation of data from satellite and other earth observations programmes;

1992-12. in the promotion of the development and diffusion of energy and environment technologies, including proposals for innovative technology programmes;

1992-13. by ensuring the international conference on straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks in the oceans is convened as soon as possible.

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Developing Countries

1992-14. We shall direct official development assistance more towards the poorest countries that undertake credible efforts to help themselves. The more prosperous developing countries are invited to contribute international assistance.

1992-15. We underline the importance for developing countries of trade, foreign direct investment and an active private sector. Poor developing countries should be offered technical assistance to establish a more diversified export base especially in manufactured goods.

1992-16. Negotiations on a substantial replenishment of IDA funds should be concluded before the end of 1992.

1992-17. The IMF should continue to provide concessional financing to support the reform programmes for the poorest countries. We call for an early decision by the IMF on the extension for one year of the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility and for the full examination of options for the subsequent period, including a renewal of the facility.

Central and Eastern Europe

1992-18. The industrial countries have granted substantial trade concessions to the CEECs in order to ensure that their reform efforts will succeed. But all countries should open their markets further. The agreements of the EC and EFTA countries aiming at the establishment of free trade areas with these countries are a significant contribution. We shall continue to offer the CEECs technical assistance in enhancing their export capacity.

1992-19. Investment from abroad should be welcomed. It is important for the development of the full economic potential of the CEECs. We urge the CEECs to focus their policies on the creation of attractive and reliable investment conditions for private capital. We are providing our bilateral credit insurance and guarantee instruments to promote foreign investment when these conditions, including servicing of debt, are met.

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New Independent States of the Former Soviet Union

1992-20. We want to help the new States to preserve their highly developed scientific and technological skills and to make use of them in building up their economies. We call upon industry and science in the industrial countries to promote cooperation and exchange with the new States. By establishing International Science and Technology Centres we are helping the redirect the expertise of scientists and engineers who have sensitive knowledge in the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction towards peaceful purposes. We will continue our efforts to enable highlyqualified civil scientists to remain in the new States and to promote research cooperation with western industrial countries.

Safety of Nuclear Power Plants in the New Independent States of the Former Soviet Union and in Central and Eastern Europe

While we recognise the important role nuclear power plays in global energy supplies, the safety of Soviet-design nuclear power plants gives cause for great concern. A special effort should be made to improve the safety of these plants. We offer the States concerned our support within the framework of a multilateral programme of action. We look to them to cooperate fully. We call upon other interested States to contribute as well. The programme of action should comprise immediate measures in the following areas:

1992-21. operational safety improvements;

1992-22. near-term technical improvements to plants based on safety assessments;

1992-23. enhancing regulatory regimes.

Such measures can achieve early and significant safety gains.

In addition, the programme of action is to create the basis for longerterm safety improvements by the examination of:

1992-24. the scope for replacing less safe plants by the development of alternative energy sources and the more efficient use of energy;

1992-25. the potential for upgrading plants of more recent design.

1992-26. Complementary to this, we will pursue the early completion of a convention on nuclear safety.

1992-27. The programme of action should develop clear priorities, provide coherence to the measures and ensure their earliest implementation. To implement the immediate measures, the existing G-24 coordination mandate on nuclear safety should be extended to the new States concerned of the former Soviet Union and at the same time made more effective. We all are prepared to strengthen our bilateral assistance.

1992-28. In addition, we support the setting up of a supplementary multilateral mechanism, as appropriate, to address immediate operational safety and technical safety improvement measures not covered by bilateral programmes. We invite the international community to contribute to the funding. The fund would take account of bilateral funding, be administered by a steering body of donors on the basis of consensus, and be coordinated with and assisted by the G-24 and the EBRD.

Decisions on upgrading nuclear power plants of more recent design will require prior clarification of issues concerning plant safety, energy policy, alternative energy sources and financing. To establish a suitable basis on which such decisions can be made, we consider the following measures necessary:

1992-29. the necessary safety studies should be presented without delay;

1992-30. together with the competent international organisations, in particular the IEA, the World Bank should prepare the required energy studies including replacement sources of energy and the cost implications. Based on these studies the World Bank and the EBRD should report as expeditiously as possible on potential financing requirements.

1992-31. We shall review the progress made in this action programme at our meeting in 1993.

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Political Declaration: Shaping The New Partnership (8 commitments)

1992-32. The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the new States of the former Soviet Union can now seize unprecedented opportunities but they also face enormous challenges. We will support them as they move toward the achievement of democratic societies and political and economic freedom.

1992-33. We shall continue through bilateral contacts and the International Science and Technology Centres in Moscow and Kiev our efforts to inhibit the spread of expertise on weapons of mass destruction.

1992-34. We will support reference by the IAEA of unresolved cases of proliferation to the UN Security Council.

1992-35. We reaffirm our willingness to share the benefits of peaceful nuclear technology with all other States, in accordance with our nonproliferation commitments.

1992-36. Each of us will continue our efforts to improve transparency and consultation in the transfer of conventional weapons and to encourage restraint in such transfers.

1992-37. We will continue to intensify our cooperation in the area of export controls of sensitive items in the appropriate fora to reduce threats to international security. A major element of this effort is the informal exchange of information to improve and harmonize these export controls.

1992-38. We support Russia in its efforts to secure the peaceful use of nuclear materials resulting from the elimination of nuclear weapons.

1992-39. We reaffirm our commitment to cooperate on existing refugee problems.

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Chairman’s Statement [German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel] (2 commitments)

Terrorism

1992-40. We condemn terrorism in all its forms and reaffirm our resolve to cooperate in combatting it. We call upon all countries involved to renounce support for terrorism, including financial support, and to take effective action to deny the use of their territory to terrorist organizations.

Declaration on Former Yugoslavia

1992-41. The needs of hundreds of thousands of refugees and displaced persons require further significant financial support. We are willing to contribute and ask others also to make fair contributions.

Address of the Council of the Baltic States to the Heads of State and Governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States
(0 commitments)

- no commitments reached

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1993 Tokyo, Japan (29 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (22 commitments)

World Economy

1993-1. We are taking and will take appropriate measures to implement this agreed global growth strategy to promote a sustainable expansion designed to create substantial increases in employment.

1993-2. We will consult closely so that our national policies can be mutually reinforcing and compatible with our shared goal of a strengthened and recovering world economy.

To enhance opportunities for employment and growth, it is essential to address structural issues which constitute obstacles to strong economic recovery and to longerterm growth potential. In this context, we endorse the report of our Finance Ministers focusing on a broad range of structural reforms, inter alia:

• greater labor market efficiency;

• improvement in education and training;

• enhancement of savings and investment;

• maintaining and improving the multilateral trading system;

• reduction of subsidies;

• addressing the economic impact of aging populations;

• controlling overall outlays on health care;

• enhancing efficiency in financial markets while ensuring their stability;

• developing international cooperation on the environment.

1993-3. We commit ourselves to addressing these issues, together with issues of innovation and of improving the "quality" of budgets and of increasing the efficiency of the public sector, and we will review progress at the next Summit.

1993-4. As a follow-up to our discussions, we agree to send our high-level representatives to a meeting in the United States in the autumn to explore the causes of excessive unemployment and to search for possible answers to this critical problem which saps the strength of our societies.

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Trade

1993-5. Maintaining and expanding the multilateral trading system is essential for world growth. We are determined to curb protectionism in all its manifestations and agree that no recourse should be made to initiatives and arrangements that threaten to undermine the multilateral open trading system.

Environment

1993-6. We renew our determination to secure environmentally sustainable development through an effective follow-up of the fruits of the UNCED, including the commitment to publish national action plans by the end of this year.

1993-7. We will work to ensure that the Global Environmental Facility, with necessary improvements, functions as the financial mechanism to provide funding for the incremental costs of implementing the global environment conventions signed at Rio.

1993-8. We shall continue to seek appropriate internationally agreed arrangements on the management, conservation and sustainable development of forests.

Russia and the Other Countries in Transition

1993-9. We have made commitments to provide funds to establish a $300 million Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Fund in close cooperation with the EBRD.

1993-10. We will work with Russia as it proceeds towards accession to the GATT.

1993-11. In this connection, we will intensify efforts to adapt export controls to the post-Cold War era.

1993-12. Recognizing that privatization and enterprise reform are at the heart of Russia’s transformation into a market economy, we agree to create a Special Privatization and Restructuring Program, in cooperation with international financial institutions, consisting of enterprise restructuring support, technical assistance and oblast support, focusing on an initial period to the end of 1994. In total, this program is expected to mobilize $3 billion.

1993-13. In addition, we are ready to encourage our private sectors to assist in this process, sharing with their Russian counterparts methods and techniques to increase productivity.

1993-14. We agree to establish a Support Implementation Group in Moscow to facilitate implementation of our support to Russia.

1993-15. We welcome the progress made in the nuclear safety program agreed at the Munich Summit, including the establishment of the multilateral fund, in which we encourage broader participation. Our aim is to agree as quickly as possible on a framework for coordinated action by all those involved following a country-by-country approach.

1993-16. We will review the progress made in 1994.

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Developing Countries

1993-17. While encouraging changes in policy reforms and performance are taking place in many developing countries, many are still confronted with major economic and social difficulties, particularly in Africa. We will continue to strengthen our support for their self-help efforts based on the principles of good governance.

1993-18. To this end, we will pursue a comprehensive approach, covering not only aid but also trade, investment and debt strategy, and a differentiated approach, tailored to the needs and performances of each country at its particular stage of development and taking environmental aspects into account.

1993-19. Under such an approach, we will make all efforts to enhance development assistance in order to respond to ongoing needs as well as new requirements.

1993-20. The poorest countries deserve special attention. Accordingly, we support the succession to or the renewal of the IMF’s Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility.

1993-21. We also look forward to a successful outcome of the International Conference on African Development in October this year.

1993-22. We will work for the success of the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo next year which is important in addressing the linkages between rapid population growth and the goals of sustainable development.

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Tokyo Summit Political Declaration: Striving for a More Secure and Humane World
(5 commitments)

1993-23. In the field of conventional arms, we will work to ensure the effectiveness of the UN Register of Conventional Arms as an important step toward improving transparency and restraint in their transfers.

1993-24. We commit ourselves to assist the Secretary General of the United Nations to implement UN Security Council Resolution 836 by sending troops, by air protection of the UNPROFOR, by financial and logistical contributions or by appropriate diplomatic action.

1993-25. Sanctions should be upheld until the conditions in the relevant Security Council Resolutions are met.

1993-26. The flow of humanitarian aid to Bosnia must be increased.

1993-27. We are determined to keep up the pressure on Iraq and Libya to implement all relevant UN Security Council Resolutions in full. 

Strengthening G7 Cooperation to Promote Employment and Noninflationary Growth:
G7 Finance Ministers’ Report to the Tokyo Summit (2 commitments)

Structural Policies Enhancing Opportunities for Employment and Growth

1993-28. In order to maintain and improve the multilateral free trade system which is a prerequisite for a sustainable world growth, it is necessary for the G7 countries to take initiatives to bring the Uruguay Round to an early and successful conclusion and to avoid protectionistic measures.

1993-29. Particularly, in the areas of traded goods and in export credit systems, we should intensify within the existing forums the ongoing efforts to reduce distorting subsidies.

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1994 Naples, Italy (53 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (41 commitments)

Introduction

As we approach the threshold of the 21st century, we are conscious of our responsibility to renew and revitalize these institutions and to take on the challenge of integrating the newly emerging market democracies across the globe.

To carry out this responsibility, we have agreed that, in Halifax next year, we will focus on two questions:

1994-1. How we can assure that the global economy of the 21st century will provide sustainable development with good prosperity and well-being of the peoples of our nations and the world?

1994-2. What framework of institutions will be required to meet these challenges in the 21st century? How can we adapt existing institutions and build new institutions to ensure the future prosperity and security of our people?

Jobs and Growth

1994-3. New jobs have been created, and in more and more of our countries people are getting back to work. Inflation is now at the lowest levels in over three decades and the conditions are in place for strong and lasting non-inflationary growth. Therefore we reconfirm the growth strategy we agreed in Tokyo.

1994-4. We call on our Finance Ministers to cooperate closely to keep recovery on track and we have asked them to enhance the ongoing process of multilateral surveillance and policy cooperation.

Following the jobs conference in Detroit and the analysis of the OECD we have identified the actions we need to take.

1994-5. We will work for the growth and stability, so that business and individuals can plan confidently for the future.

1994-6. We will build on the present recovery by accelerating reforms so as to improve the capacity of our economies to create jobs.

We will concentrate on the following structural measures. We will:

1994-7. Increase investment in our people: through better basic education; through improving skills; through improving the transition from school to work; through involving employers fully in training and – as agreed in Detroit– through developing a culture of lifetime learning;

1994-8. Reduce labour rigidities which add to employment’s cost or deter job creation, eliminate excessive regulations and ensure that indirect costs of employing people are reduced wherever possible;

1994-9. Pursue active labour market policies that will help the unemployed to search more effectively for jobs and ensure that our social support systems create incentives to work;

1994-10. Encourage and promote innovation and the spread of new technologies including, in particular, the development of an open, competitive and integrated worldwide information infrastructure; we agreed to convene in Brussels a meeting of our relevant Ministers to follow up these issues;

1994-11. Pursue opportunities to promote job creation in areas where new needs now exist, such as quality of life, and protection of the environment;

1994-12. Promote competition, through eliminating unnecessary regulations and through removing impediments to small and medium-sized firms;

1994-13. For the implementation of this programme we call for the active involvement of business and labour and the support of our people.

1994-14. We are determined to press ahead with this action programme and will review the progress made towards realizing our objectives of sustained growth and the creation of more – and better quality – new jobs.

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Trade

1994-15. We are determined to ratify the Uruguay Round Agreements and to establish the WTO by January 1st, 1995 and call on other countries to do the same.

1994-16. We are resolved to continue the momentum of trade liberalisation. We call on the WTO, IMF, World Bank and the OECD to cooperate within their own areas of responsibility.

1994-17. On new international trade issues we encourage work under way in the OECD to study the interaction of international trade rules and competition policies. We support the further development of international investment rules in order to remove obstacles to foreign direct investment.

1994-18. We welcome the work on the relation between trade and environment in the new WTO. We call for intensified efforts to improve our understanding of new issues including employment and labour standards and their implications for trade policies.

1994-19. In our meeting next year we will review progress on these issues.

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Environment

1994-20. Environment is a top priority for international cooperation. Environmental policies can contribute to enhancing growth, employment and living standards, for example through investments in appropriate technologies, energy efficiency improvements and cleaning up polluted areas.

1994-21. We urge the multilateral development banks to continue making progress in promoting local participation and incorporating environmental considerations into their programmes.

1994-22. We support the work of the Commission on Sustainable Development in reviewing progress in the implementation of the Rio process. We look forward to the implementation of the Conventions already concluded, in particular those on biological diversity and climate change and in this respect we will work for the success of the forthcoming Conferences of these subjects in Nassau and Berlin.

1994-23. We welcome the restructuring and the replenishment of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and we support its choice as the permanent financial mechanism of these two Conventions.

We welcome the recent conclusion of the Convention on Desertification and the results of the Conference on Small Islands, which add to the framework agreed in Rio.

1994-24. We are determined to speed up the implementation of our national plans called for under the Rio Climate Treaty and we will each report what we have achieved at next year’s Summit. We also recognize the need to develop steps for the post-2000 period.

Developing Countries

1994-25. We are committed to continue our efforts to enhance development assistance as well as promoting trade and investment in developing countries.

1994-26. We welcome the renewal of the ESAF and the measures under consideration by the IMF to increase support to developing countries and to ensure that all members take part in the SDR system. In addition we agree to explore ways to mobilize more effectively the existing resources of the international financial institutions to respond to the special needs of countries emerging form economic and political disruption and the poorest most indebted countries.

1994-27. In the Middle East, economic development is essential to underpin the peace process. Thus, along with others, we are providing financial and technical assistance to the Palestinian Authority and are working to promote cooperation and development in the region.

1994-28. We warmly welcome South Africa’s transition to full democracy. This will open new opportunities for trade and inward investment. We will provide further assistance to help strengthen economic and social development, in particular for the poorest groups.

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Nuclear Safety

1994-29. We remain committed to the existing international initiatives to promote an early closure of high risk reactors. The closing down of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is an urgent priority.

1994-30. We are therefore putting forward to the Ukrainian Government an action plan for the closure of Chernobyl. This plan will require measures to be taken by the Ukrainian authorities as well as financial contributions from the international community.

1994-31. The closure of Chernobyl would be accompanied by the early completion of three new reactors to adequate safety standards, by comprehensive reforms in the energy sector, increased energy conservation and the use of other energy sources. In this context we welcome the contribution by the European Union.

1994-32. As a further step we are ready to provide for the Action Plan an initial amount of up to US $200 million in grants, including a replenishment of the Nuclear Safety Account for this purpose.

1994-33. In addition, loans should be provided by the IFIs.

Ukraine

1994-34. We are committed to support comprehensive reform efforts through intensified technical and financial assistance and by facilitating improved access to our markets for Ukrainian products.

1994-35. With a renewed commitment to comprehensive market reform, Ukraine could gain access to international financing of over $4 billion in the course of a two-year period following the commencement of genuine reforms.

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Russia

1994-36. We recognize the historical dimension of the reform process in Russia. We are encouraged by the commitment to reform, both political and economic, of the Russian leadership and by the progress made so far.

1994-37. Mobilizing domestic savings for productive use and attracting foreign direct investment will be crucial to the success of Russia’s reforms. We therefore urge Russia to improve the legal and institutional framework for private investment and for external trade. We ourselves will continue to work with Russia towards GATT membership, in order to advance Russia’s integration into the world economy and further improve access to our markets for Russian products.

1994-38. We will continue to support reform in Russia.

Cooperation against transnational crime and money-laundering

1994-39. We are alarmed by the growth of organized transnational crime, including money laundering, and by the use of illicit proceeds to take control of legitimate business. This is a world-wide problem with countries in transition increasingly targeted by criminal organisations. We are determined to strengthen international cooperation to address this situation.

1994-40. On money-laundering, we recognize the achievements of the FATF, which we set up in 1989, and reaffirm our support for its continued work over the next five years.

1994-41. In order to achieve our goal, we agree that counter-measures need to be implemented by FATF members and other countries with significant financial centers.

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Political Chairman’s Statement (12 commitments)

 1994-42. We reiterate our resolve to enforce full implementation of each and every relevant UN Security Council resolution concerning Iraq and Libya until they are complied with, and recall that such implementation would entail the reassessment of sanctions.

1994-43. We declare our unequivocal support for the indefinite extension of the Treaty in 1995.

1994-44. We underline the importance of continuing nuclear arms reduction, and confirm our commitment to achieve universal, verifiable and comprehensive treaties to ban nuclear tests and the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons.

1994-45. We reaffirm our commitment for the earliest possible entry into force of the Chemical Weapons Convention and welcome the Special Conference of States parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.

1994-46. We support full implementation of the UN Register of Conventional Arms. We agree to cooperate to prevent nuclear smuggling.

1994-47. We assign priority to the problems of anti-personnel landmines, including efforts to curb their indiscriminate use, halt their export, assist in their clearance worldwide.

1994-48. We shall work together and with others for effective export controls to ensure that trade in armaments and sensitive dual-use goods is carried out responsibly.

1994-49. We are determined to strengthen efforts to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, aggressive nationalism, antisemitism and other forms of intolerance.

1994-50. The international community should equip itself with more efficient means to respond in a prompt way to humanitarian emergencies world-wide. We shall seek to improve our capabilities through the UN and other appropriate mechanisms to fulfill such requirements.

1994-51. We condemn terrorism in all its forms, especially when state-sponsored, and reaffirm our resolve to cooperate in combating it with determination.

1994-52. We stress that organized crime and narcotics trafficking are a threat to political as well as economic and social life, and we call for increased international cooperation. We have agreed that the proposed world ministerial conference to be held in October in Naples at the initiative of the Italian government will be a most important occasion to advance such cooperation.

1994-53. The meeting has also given us the opportunity for an exchange of views on the reform process in Russia, a historic task that President Yeltsin and the Russian government continue to bring forward with the confirmed support of the international community. President Yeltsin presented Russia’s views on global economic and security issues. We intend to cooperate on such topics as transnational crime, money laundering, and nuclear safety.

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1995 Halifax Canada (78 commitments)

G7 Communiqué (59 commitments)

Growth and Employment

1995-1. We will pursue appropriate macroeconomic and structural policies to maintain the momentum of growth.

1995-2. We remain committed to the medium-term strategy that we earlier agreed upon. Consistent with it, we are determined to make the best possible use of the current economic expansion by taking steps to promote durable job creation. This requires determined action to further reduce public deficits, to maintain a non-inflationary environment and to increase national savings for the funding of high level of global investment.

1995-3. We must also remove obstacles to achieving the longer-term potential of our economic view to grow and create secure, well-paying jobs. This will require measures to upgrade the skills of our labour force, and to promote, where appropriate, greater flexibility in labour markets and elimination of unnecessary regulations.

1995-4. As a follow-up to our discussions, we agree to ask ministers to meet in France before our next Summit to review the progress made in job creation and consider how best to increase employment in all of our countries.

1995-5. We are also committed to ensuring protection for our aging populations and those in need on our societies. To this end, some of our countries must take measures to ensure the sustainability of our public pension programmes and systems of social support.

Strengthening the Global Economy

1995-6. We urge Finance Ministers to commission studies and analysis from th international organizations responsible for banking and securities regulations and to report on the adequacy of current arrangements, together with proposals for improvement where necessary, at the next Summit.

1995-7. We also recognize that international financial fraud is a growing problem. We are committed to improving communication between regulators and law enforcement agencies.

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Promoting Sustainable Development

1995-8. We are committed to securing substantial flows of funds and to improving the quality of our assistance.

1995-9. IDA plays an indispensable role in helping to reduce poverty and integrate the poorest countries into the global economy. We urge all donor countries to fulfil promptly their commitments to IDA-10 and to support a significant replenishment through IDA-11.

We will work with the organizations and all their members to ensure relevant multilateral institutions:

1995-10. make sustainable development a central goal of their policies and programmes, including by intensifying and deepening the integration of environmental considerations into all aspects of their programmes;

1995-11. encourage countries to follow sound economic, environmental and social policies and to create the appropriate legal and structural framework for sustainable development;

1995-12. encourage countries to follow participatory development strategies and support governmental reforms that assure transparency and public accountability, a stable rule of law, and an active civil society;

1995-13. encourage the development of a healthy private sector, expand guarantees and co-financing arrangements to catalyze private flows, and increase credit for small and medium-sized enterprises;

1995-14. continue to provide resources for the infrastructure needed for sustainable development, where these are not available from the private sector.

1995-15. We agree on the need to actively support the peace process in the Middle East. Such support would include the establishment of a new institution and financing mechanism enhancing regional cooperation. We therefore urge the Task Force already at work to continue its deliberations with an aim to arriving at a suitable proposal in time for the Amman summit next October.

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Reducing Poverty

Sub-Saharan Africa faces especially severe challenges. We will work with others to encourage relevant multilateral institutions to:

1995-16. focus concessional resources on the poorest countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa, which have a demonstrated capacity and commitment to use them effectively, and take trends in military and other unproductive spending into account in extending assistance;

1995-17. direct a substantially increased proportion of their resources to basic social programmes and other measures which attack the roots of poverty.

We recognize that some of the poorest countries have substantial multilateral debt burdens. We will encourage:

1995-18. the Bretton Woods institutions to develop a comprehensive approach to assist countries with multilateral debt problems, through the flexible implementation of existing instruments and new mechanisms where necessary;

1995-19. better use of all existing World Bank and IMF resources and adoption of appropriate measures in the multilateral development banks to advance this objective and to continue concessional ESAF lending operations.

1995-20. We encourage the WTO to monitor and review the Uruguay Round’s impact on the least developed countries.

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Safeguarding the Environment

1995-21. In their policies, operations and procurement, G-7 governments must show leadership in improving the environment. This will require the appropriate mix of economic instruments, innovative accountability mechanisms, environmental impact assessment and voluntary measures. Efforts must focus on pollution prevention, the "polluter pays" principle, internalization of environmental costs, and the integration of environmental considerations into policy and decision making in all sectors.

1995-22. We underline the importance of meeting the commitments we made at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit and subsequently, and the need to review and strengthen them, where appropriate.

Climate change remains of major global importance. We will work with others to:

1995-23. fulfil our existing obligations under the Climate Change Convention, and our commitments to meet the agreed ambitious timetable and objectives to follow up the Berlin Conference of the Parties;

1995-24. implement the medium-term work programme adopted persuant to the Convention on Biological Diversity;

1995-25. conclude successfully the work of the CSD intergovernmental panel on forests, and promote a successful UN Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks and international consensus at the next CSD session on action to deal with the problems of the world’s oceans.

Preventing and Responding to Crises

Disasters and other crises complicate the development challenge and have exposed gaps in our institutional machinery. To help prevent and mitigate emerging crises, including those with human rights and refugee dimensions, we will ask:

1995-26. the UN Secretary-General to explore means to improve the analysis and utilization of disaster and conflict-related early warning information, particularly through the High Commissioners on Human Rights and Refugees;

1995-27. the Bretton Woods institutions and the UN to establish a new coordination procedure, supported as necessary by existing resources, to facilitate a smooth transition from the emergency to the rehabilitation phase of a crisis, and to cooperate more effectively with donor countries;

1995-28. the bodies involved in the provision of humanitarian assistance to cooperate more closely with the Department of Humanitarian Affairs in its assigned coordination role.

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Reinforcing Coherence, Effectiveness, and Efficiency of Institutions

The international financial institutions have shown flexibility in responding to the changing needs of the world economy; there nevertheless remain a number of areas where improvements are desirable to better prepare the institutions for the challenges ahead. We will encourage:

1995-29. the World Bank and the regional development banks to decentralize their operations wherever possible;

1995-30. the IMF and the World Bank to concentrate on their respective core concerns (broadly, macroeconomic policy for the IMF and structural and sectoral policies for the World Bank);

1995-31. revision of the Ministerial committees of the IMF and the World Bank to promote more effective decision-making;

1995-32. the World Bank Group to integrate more effectively the activities of the International Finance Corporation and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency into its country assistance strategies;

1995-33. the multilateral development banks to coordinate their respective country programmes more effectively with bilateral and other multilateral donors.

So as to allow the United Nations better to meet the objectives in its Charter, we will encourage broadening and deepening the reform process already underway, and will work with others to:

1995-34. complete the Agenda for Development, which should set out a fresh approach to international cooperation and define the particular contribution expected of U.N. bodies;

1995-35. develop a more effective internal policy coordination role for the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); encourage deeper cooperation between UN and specialized agencies both at headquarters and in the field; consolidate and streamline organizations in the economic and social fields, such as humanitarian relief and development assistance; and encourage the adoption of modern management techniques, with a more transparent and accountable Secretariat;

1995-36. update and focus mandates to avoid duplication; eliminate overlaps with new organizations; e.g., UNCTAD with WTO, and consider the roles of certain institutions in light of evolving challenges; e.g., Regional Economic Commissions and UNIDO;

To increase overall coherence, cooperation and cost effectiveness we will work with others to encourage:

1995-37. rationalization of data collection, analysis, priority setting, and reporting activities, and greater complementarity in the provision of assistance at the country level;

1995-38. improved coordination among international organizations, bilateral donors and NGOs;

1995-39. all institutions to formulate and implement plans to effect significant reductions in operating costs over the next few years.

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Follow-up

1995-40. These are our initial proposals to prepare multilateral institutions for the challenges of the next century. We intend to promote them actively, working together with the wider international community in all appropriate organizations.

1995-41. In particular, in the UN, we commit ourselves to working with other members to advance these goals.

1995-42. We will use the 50th anniversary celebrations in October 1995 to build consensus on these priorities with others. We will take stock at our meeting next year in France.

Creating Opportunities through Open Markets

1995-43. In order to improve market access, we intend to work for the reduction of remaining internal and external barriers.

1995-44. We will implement the Uruguay Round Agreements fully, and reaffirm our commitment to resist protectionism in all its forms.

1995-45. We will build on the Agreements to create new opportunities for growth, employment and global cooperation.

1995-46. We will work together with our trading partners to consolidate the WTO as an effective institution, and are committed to ensuring a well-functioning and respected dispute settlement mechanism.

1995-47. We are committed to ensuring that our participation in regional trade initiatives continues to be a positive force fo the multilateral system.

1995-48. We are committed to the successful completion of current negotiations in sevices sectors and, in particular, significant liberalization in financial and telecommunications services.

1995-49. We will proceed with follow-up work foreseen in the Uruguay Round Final Act.

1995-50. We will begin discussions on investment with our partners in the WTO.

Consistent with the goal of continued trade liberalization, we will pursue work on:

1995-51. Trade and environment to ensure that rules and policies in these differenct areas are compatible;

1995-52. The scope for multilateral action in the fields of trade and competition policy;

1995-53. Trade, employment and labour standards.

1995-54. We will work together with our partners in the WTO and other appropriate fora to create the basis for an ambitious first WTO Ministerial Meeting in Singapore in 1996.

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Economies in Transition

1995-55. We will continue our support for economic reform in the economies in transition, and their integration into the global trade and financial systems.

Nuclear Safety

1995-56. We affirm the importance of improving nuclear safety in countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States and welcome efforts and progress made to date. We will continue to support these initiatives.

1995-57. We reaffirm the commitments of support made last year at Naples under the G7 Action Plan for Ukraine’s Energy Sector.

1995-58. Recognizing the economic and social burden that the closure of Chernobyl will place on the Ukraine, we pledge to continue efforts to mobilize efforts to mobilize international support for appropriate energy production, energy efficiency and nuclear safety projects for the Ukraine.

Next Summit

1995-59. We have accepted the invitation of the President of France to meet in Lyon from June 27th to 29th, 1996.

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Chairman’s Statement, Halifax Summit (19 commitments)

Commitment to Multilateral Engagement

1995-60. We reaffirm our commitment to the UN, whose Charter lays down the fundamental principles for an international order based on peace and security, sustainable development, and respect for human rights.

1995-61. We support measures to strengthen the UN, which is called upon to play an ever more important role in the post Cold War period, and will work with other Member States to build, through concrete reforms of the institutions, a more effective and efficient organization to meet the challenges of the next half-century.

1995-62. We, for our part, are determined to coordinate more closely our individual efforts to assist in the prevention, management and resolution of conflicts.

Arms Control and Disarmament

1995-63. We support the safe and secure dismantlement of the nuclear weapons eliminated under START I and we welcome the work of the United States and Russia on measures to ensure that the fissile material from these weapons is rendered unusable for weapons purposes.

1995-64. Recognizing the continuing dangers posed worldwide by criminal diversion and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, and drawing on the decisions taken in Naples and the practical work undertaken by our experts since then, we resolve to work together to strengthen systems of control, accounting and physical security for nuclear materials; to expand our cooperation in the area of customs, law enforcement and intelligence and to strengthen through venues such as the IAEA and INTERPOL the international community’s ability to combat nuclear theft and smuggling.

1995-65. We emphasize the importance of bringing the Chemical Weapons Convention into force at the earliest possible date, and call for rapid progress in developing verification systems for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.

1995-66. We shall work with others for effective and responsible export controls on arms and sensitive dual-use goods and technologies.

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Promoting New Approaches

1995-67. Initiatives such as the UN Secretary-General’s Agenda for Development that highlight the linkages between economic, social and political issues could make an important contribution to international stability. We commit ourselves to working with other Member States to build on it.

1995-68. We reiterate our firm belief in the necessity for the international community to promote efficient means to respond promptly to humanitarian emergencies, and support the work of the WEU in this area.

1995-69. We will work to promote good governance and democratic accountability, which are the surest guarantees of respect for universal human rights and fundamental freedoms.

1995-70. We reaffirm our support for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and his coordinating role on human rights throughout the UN system

1995-71. We restate our resolve to defeat all forms of terrorism. Following recent outrages, we agree to share more intensively our experiences of, and lessons learned from, major terrorist incidents, and to strengthen our cooperation in all areas of counter-terrorism, including research and technology.

1995-72. In pursuit of these shared aims, we charge our terrorism experts group to report to a ministerial level meeting on specific, cooperative measures to deter, prevent, and investigate terrorist acts. These sessions should be held prior to our next meeting.

1995-73. Transnational criminal organizations are a growing threat to the security of our nations. To counter their criminal activities effectively, we will work to reinforce existing institutions, strengthen our cooperation, exchange of information, and assistance to other nations.

1995-74. Sanctuaries provided by some countries to transnational criminal organizations and their agents create a major difficulty in the implementation of justice. We all agree to cooperate more closely together, and with others, to ensure that they cannot escape justice by crossing borders.

1995-75. To implement our commitments in the fight against transnational organized crime, we have established a group of senior experts with a temporary mandate to look at existing arrangements for cooperation both bilateral and multilateral, to identify significant gaps and options for improved coordination and to propose practical action to fill such gaps. The group will report back to the Summit in 1996.

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Europe

- no commitments reached

Middle East and Africa

1995-76. We reiterate our resolve to enforce full implementation of each and every relevant UN Security Council resolution concerning Iraq and Libya until they are complied with, and recall that such implementation would entail the reassessment of sanctions.

1995-77. We will continue to support efforts by African leaders to prevent conflict and enhance the welfare of their populations through democratization, structural reform, and economic liberalization.

Asia-Pacific

1995-78. Each of us will pursue our respective dialogues with China in the interests of a more stable and prosperous world.

Americas

- no commitments reached 

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